“Expectancy” has a variety of meanings in psychology, but in this study, it means one's preparatory state before really taking action. To form such “expectancy”, stimuli must be regularly presented, and Ss must be aware of such regularity. The purpose of this study was to investigate in what condition and where, provided stimuli were regularly presented, preschoolers (4-5-6-year-old) could form expectancy using a simple reaction time experiment paradigm. The main results were as follows: 1)4 and 5 year-old children could form expectancy, only when they “interpreted” the stimulus regularity into their own sensori-motor actions, i.e., when they reacted to the cued stimulus during experiments. 2)In contrast to their expectancy, the 6 year-old children did not necessarily need such “interpretation”.
Purposes: (1) to examine the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance or popularity by clarifying the feature of self-esteem individually,(2) to investigate, as every self-esteem type, how children cope with unsuccessful problems in terms of the number of unsuccessful problems they select, how they solve them (mental set), and how they increase their anxiety. Subjects: Fifth grade children (n=69) were divided into five groups (7 subjects each) of self-esteem types, namely high-high (HH), high-low (HL), middle-middle (MM), low-high (LH) and low-low (LL), to score their answers of a questionaire and their behaviour related to self-esteem. Results: HHs have stable self-esteem and get high score in unsuccessful problem selection, mental set and anxiety. LLs have helpless and negative image of themselves and get lowest score in all three problems. HLs and LHs have unstable self-esteem and get various scores according to their stressed conditions.
The present study was an attempt to investigate the vocational indecision of undergraduates in terms of ego development in adolescence. Two scales, Vocational Indecision Scale (VIS) and Identity Achievement Scale (IAS), were developed and administered to 349 university students. By factor analysis, VIS was divided into six subscales named as “Confusion” “Immaturity” “Easiness” “Moratorium” “Exploration” “Decision”, and IAS was also divided into six subscales as “Certainty” “Activity” “Acceptance” “Control” “Identity” “Intimacy”. Relations between VIS and IAS were examined mainly by multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance. The findings showed that each subscale of VIS had different relations with the subscales of IAS and each subtype of vocational indecision corresponding to the six subscales of VIS had different levels of Identity-achievement.“Decision” and “Exploration” had higher levels of Identity-achievement, while “Confusion” and “Immaturity” had lower levels. It was also noticed that some differences between sexes existed. These results gave some therapeutic suggestions to career counseling.
The present study investigated the developmental trends of the hierarchical structure of natural categories. Children from first, third, and fifth grades of elementary level and undergraduate students served as subjects. They were asked to name the categorical objects in a particular context. The three experimental variables were: grade levels, categorical levels of a context, and structure of instances. As a measure of structuralization of the categorical hierarchy, the coordination of the categorical level in naming were analyzed. The results were as follows; 1) at the adult level, the systematic coordination of a categorical level was observed. By contrast, first graders persistently used very concrete names in spite of contextual changes. The third and fifth graders had a trend to relate the categorical level to the context, but not so orderly as the adults. 2) The coordination of naming had a developmental lag with the ability to judge the categorical relation, which interacted with the categorical level and the grades. According to the above findings, the developmental aspect of hierarchical structure of categories was discussed.
A three-year-old girl with delayed speech received an intervention as to her irrelevant use of words in giving and taking. Before the intervention, she would give and take without saying a word or irrelevant words, such as “Choudai, hai” (Give me, look) in giving, and “Dozo, arigatou” (Look, thank you) in taking. In the intervention she was requested to use dolls as giver and taker imitating modeled speech of adult. Through initial manual guidance she could use dolls. It helped her conceptualize giving and taking she could then relate words to those acts relevantly. However she would express no intent by words, representing only the acts themselves. In the end she would say “Arigatou” both as giver and taker, representing her partner's taking and her own taking. Her irrelevant word use was the result of adopting representative function of language with no consideration of actor-utterance relation. Further investigation would be requested to clarify the reason why she could not relate them relevantly.
The present paper presents a set of data on the psychosomatic adjustment processes of Japanese exchange students to U.S.A. and Canada. Through Cornell Medical Index, it was found that boys were faster and better adjusted to a different culture than girls in terms of the subjective psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were divided into Regions I, II and III based on pre-departure CMI discrimination regions of neurosis. Subjects in Region I showed that they were fast and well adjusted to a new culture, showing little vacillation on subjective symptoms through pre- and post-departure periods. Those of Region II followed similar processes, but showed visible vacillation. Those of Region III continued to exhibit stress-related symptoms. Through a questionnaire administered during their sojourn, the girls were found to appreciate their stay less than the boys. Moreover, the more neurotic the students were assessed by pre-daparture CMI, the less they tended to appreciate the different culture.
The relationship between language abilities and modeling effects in children were examined. At first subjects performed a pretest after being given an instruction for task structure. Next, they observed a model demonstrating correct responses with an oddity task and then performed an imitation test. This observation-imitation phase was repeated three times. Before this experiment, the subjects' language abilities had been measured by the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. The results indicated that the subjects who were put into the high reception group on the basis of ITPA scores showed better performance in the imitation tests than the subjects in the low reception group. These results were discussed from the view point of subjects' levels of comprehension of the task structure.
This study was designed to investigate the process of development of children's space perception in three conditions. Subjects were required to perform the task following the three conditions: (1) Condition (A)-to choose the same correct stimulus with the sample chosen among many (the multiple choice method); (2) Condition (B)-to pick up a pair having the same figure in each square; (3) Condition (C)-to arrange the figures and plastic building blocks in a correct position by eyes and hands coordinated, The identical standard stimuli were used according to the above conditions. Materials for the task were geometrical figures and plastic building blocks. The ages of the subjects were 4, 5 and 6. The results were as follows; (1) The younger groups (4 and 5 years) performed better in condition (C) than in condition (A) and condition (B), though identical standard stimuli were used.(2) T-test made a significant difference in the three conditions.(3) The above results show that spacial ability of younger children is better in manipulative activity condition than in visually perceptive condition.
In the present study, the relations between the biased tonicity of the body effected by the tilt of the body, the bias center of gravity, chronic tension and vertical judgments (visual, tactual) in cerebral palsied children (N=10, 7-10yrs.) and adolescents (N=10, 15-29yrs.) were investigated. The main results were summarized as follows: relations were found between the direction that showed relatively more chronic tension in the body, the direction of its tilt and the direction of the apparent visual verticality: all these results sustained the Sensory Tonic Field Theory by Werner (1952). No relations were found between the bias of center of gravity and the vertical judgments. And Ss having more chronic tension and poorer standing stability showed more tilt of apparent verticality. Taking account of these results, the relations between the biased tonicity of the body effected by chronic tension and the vertical judgments were discussed.
A total of 8 kinds of paired stimuli were used in this study consisting of 4 kinds of combination of hirakana letters meaning a circle or a cross with a symbol designating a circle or cross, and four other kinds of combination in which letters and symbols were reversed in position. Each pair was presented tachistoscopically to the bilateral visual fields. The subjects of group A were requested to respond with the right hand when the letters or symbol presented to the RVF was a circle and to respond with the right hand when the letters or symbol presented to the LVF was a cross, the reaction time was measured. The subjects of group B were requested to respond with the right when the right-side stimulus was perceived as a cross and to respond with the left hand when the left-side stimulus was perceived as a circle. The subjects were found to respond more quickly to the stimuli paired with letters on the right side than letters on the left.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of distributive justice based on the theory and method of Damon, and to assess the crosscultural generality of distributive justice construct. Distributive justice development describing a child's progressive understanding constituted fair criteria for the distribution of goods. The concept of positive justice was seen as further developing through a series of six distinct phases. Damon's method of positive-interview was translated into Japanese with minimal modification. It was administerd to 227 children from 4 through 9 years old. The results indicated that the stage progression had been validated in Japan as well as in U.S.A. and that Damon's method was proper.