Preschoolers' understanding of number conservation in a signif icant context was studied in a series of 2 experiments. In experiment I, nonconservers in pretest (standard number conservation task) participated in a “puppet” experiment in which the conservation task was placed in the context of a puppet skit. Half of them were tested in a condition where the transformation was made by one of the puppets with an explicit reason, while for the other half transformation was made by the tester without any apparent reason. The mean success rates were 67% and 24% respectively. In experiment II, nonconservers in pretest were tested in 3 conditions in the puppet experiment: whether the transformation was made by the tester with a reason, or by one of the puppets without any apparent reason, or by the tester without any apparent reason. The mean conservation rates were 73%, 67%, and 21% respectively. Implications of these results were discussed concerning children's understanding of the significance of transformation in a conservation task.
This study investigated how people made indir ect refusals in a questionnaire and the role-play experiment. At first, 3rd, 5th, and 8th graders and undergraduates were asked to write down refusals to simple requests such as “Help me to relocate a bookcase” in a questionnaire. And then, other 3rd, 5th, and 8th graders and undergraduates were invited to participate in role-play experiment in pair, where each pair performed a request-refusal conversation. The types of refusals were categorized. The results showed that refusals were made by cancelling the information supporting the requests (eg. refusing person ‘s’ inability to perform the requested act) and presenting information which inferring from the cancelled information (eg. requesting person's own act to perform his goal). Even the 3rd graders made the same types of refusals as the undergraduates, although the frequencies were different.
Two experiments were designed to investigate the nonverbal encoding and decoding process in an instructional situation. In experiment one, sixteen university students (listeners) responded individually to both easy and difficult short lectures in a face to face situation. Videotapes of these sessions were then coded and analyzed for nonverbal content. Results showed that high nodding frequency indicated good comprehension with an opposite trend for high blinking frequency. In experiment two, 24 male and 24 female decoders observed 64 videotaped learning sessions which were recorded in experiment 1 and edited. The observers judged the degree of comprehension for each stimulus person only on the basis of nonverbal cues. Correlations between judged levels of comprehension and frequencies of each nonverbal behavior showed that dominance of nonverbal cues differed according to sex of listeners. In the case of male listeners the dominant cue was nodding, while for female listeners the dominant cues were blinking, eye and face direction.
The present study was designed to inv estigate the function of self-evaluation (SE) and behavior standard on painting task in a preschool classroom. The subjects were 117 children aged six and divided into 5 groups. A 2×2 factorial design with SE or non-SE, and general behavior standard (GBS) or concrete behavior standard (CBS) was used. In addition, a control group was introduced. The task was to paint in crayon a geometrical figure without deviating from the frame for a day and done during 8 consecutive days. The GBS was set to decrease the deviation, and the CBS was set to decrease the number of deviation clearly checked in advance by the experimenter. The results were as follows: (1) CBS had both informational and motivational functions,(2) SE had a goaloriented function, and (3) girls had more stringent criterion on SE than boys.
The purpose of the present experiment was to assess the effects of teaching a rule with exceptions on arousing interest in learners. The experimental group was given reading material describing the existence of a rule between the life cycle of plants and the seasons. In the material, a number of plants were listed in accordance with the rule. Following, the existence of plants being exceptional samples to the rule, and the reasons for their exceptionality were given. One of the control groups was given reading material in which the rule above-mentioned was not pointed out at all ; only two different types of plants living differently were placed side by side Ss were asked how interesting the article was, and also were requested to comment on its interesting feature. The result was that the experimental group was more deeply interested in the given article than the control group. They particularly commented as interesting the exceptional existence of plants and the reasons for it. The obtained results were discussed from the viewpoint of conceptual conflict and its reduction.
The result obtained by Brown et al.(1977) emphasizing that younger subjects could recall idea units of a story in terms of its importance while failing to rate them, was investigated. In experiment I, though the numbers of idea units and levels were less than in Brown's experiment, our younger subjects failed to rate them correctly. Such result suggested that the cause of this phenomenon was not relevant to the procedural problem in which they divided the total units into a certain number of units per level. Therefore in experiment II, a simulation of the cognitive process likely to be necessary for the performance of the rating task, from an analytical point of view in a structured Japanese cognitive frame,“Ki-Sho-Ten-Ketsu”, was given to younger subjects to assist them in monitoring explicitly. Such training improved the rating indicating that the cause of their rating failure was likely to have resulted from a lack of knowledge of the metacognitive system,(inability to monitor their own cognitive process).
Many educational and psychological researchers determine the sample size in their research without any guideline except for the vague “as many as possible” principle. This article presents easy-to-use tables for determining the sample size in a research involving the use of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. To use the tables, the researcher needs to specify the expected size of the sample correlation and the desired width of the 95% or 99% confidence interval for the population correlation. The construction of the tables is based on the large sample theory with Fisher's Z transformation.
The effectiveness of self-instruction training in promoting the acquisition and transfer of self-checking strategy was evaluated for children under six. A significant difference wasfound in the training task between self-instruction training and control conditions. On the transfer task (recall readiness task), there was no significant difference between the two groups. It was suggested that even children aged below six could effectively take advantage of a self-checking strategy through self-instruction training.
The purpose of this study is to propose an equating method for equating two latent ability scales (scale θ* & θ) by using subjects' estimated ability scale values and test information functions. This method uses asymptotic property of maximum likelihood estimator's distribution. The practical application of this method is demonstrated by using a part of the test for word meaning comprehension (Shiba & Noguchi, 1982). As a result the computer simulation shows that this method has smaller error of estimate than Noguchi's (1983).
The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the concepts of masculinity and femininity, and their interrelation,(b) the appropriateness of the scale for measurements of sex-roles, and (c) the difference of role expectations for both sexes. Using two types of adjective lists, scores concerning desirabilities for men, women, and ‘self’ were factor analyzed respectively in unipolar scales among 155 undergraduates and in bipolar (SD) scales also among 217 undergraduates. In both scales, three factors were identified; “agency” emphasizing personal abilities or properties,“communion” oriented to cooperation with-or consideration for others, and “delicacy-charms” consisting of tenderness and sexual attractiveness. The scale was termed ISRS (Ito Sex Role Scale). Agency and communion were the main structural dimensions of sex-roles, mutually related with desirability for both men and women. The unipolar scales were more suitable for measurements of sex-roles than SD scales for the independence of factors. Role expectations for men consisted of agency and communion, while delicacy-charms were added to those for women. Reliability and validity of ISRS were substantiated in various aspects.
This report presents the results of a study concerning psychological studies of individual differences in attention. The subjects were 40 fourth-grade children. They performed on the MFF test. Ss were classified as “Fast/Accurate”,“Slow/Accurate”,“Fast/Inaccurate” and “Slow/Inaccurate” groups. The vigilance task was a simple 20-minute discrimination one. Analysis of variance was performed on each of the vigilance scores. As predicted, significant differences were noted between Ss with different attentional styles, with FA and SA Ss detecting a significantly smaller percentage of false detections than did SI Ss. Moreover performance differences between FA or SA and FI Ss on reaction times were found significant. YG personality test was later administered. The results suggested that accurate (FA, SA) and inaccurate (FI, SI) Ss differed significantly in personality. The inaccurates were identified as inferiority feeling, non-nervousness and social extraversion Ss. The evidence for the conclusion might be summarized as follows. Individual differences in attention appeared to be associated with both inter-individual differences in vigilance and personality characteristics.
For the purpose of offering technical aspects of speech in school teachers, the sound pressure level and speed of speech during their Japanese lessons were measured. Results were as follows: 1) The sound pressure level ranged from 74 to 90 dB SPL and there was no significant difference among the teachers in each grade or between male and female teachers. 2) Teachers in higher grade classes tended to speak fasted than teachers in lower grades. However, analysis of rate on duration of phrase and pause showed that teachers in high grade classes took less frequent pause, and therefore, no difference in rate on duration of phrases between teachers in higher and lower grade classes was noticed. The rate of duration of phrases was about 8 mora/sec.
The reward allocation behavior of 150 children from four to eight years old was studied. Children worked on a task with a fictitious partner whose performance, they were told, was superior, equal, or inferior to their own. They were then given rewards and were told to divide them between themselves and their partners. Results indicated that the children's allocaton behavior does change with age in the children who were told that their performance was inferior to that of their partners. Younger children tended to distribute rewards selfinterestedly ignoring their own performance. And the children between four and seven preferred to divide equally rather than follow an equity norm, whereas such preference was reversed in eight-year-old children.