The present experiment was to investigate which map would better help an early blind person to walk correctly in a new locale, a large model (a scale of 1: 40) or a small model (a scale of 1: 1000). Large models were made with 4 plastic poles designating 4 points of the locale. Subjects were asked to walk from the 1st to the 4th point sequentially, while tracing strings connecting each pole. Small models were tactile maps. Early blind and blindfolded sighted subjects learned the models, then walked on the locale. Sighted subjects showed correct distance estimation and small angle error for models, and correct course selection at walking. Blind subjects' performance were worse than sighted subjects. An especially large number of errors in the course selection were recorded after the subjects experienced one of the small models. The poor translating ability from one modality (tactile) to another modality (walking) was discussed, also the usefulness of the large model for Orientation and Mobility was discussed.
The purpose of this research was to examine the possibility of postfeedback interval, and the method of management that might affect the children's performance in a school learning situation. In experiment I, using a booklet, 199 fourth-grade students participating, five conditions were arranged. The results showed that in Cond. I & II which were acconding to the teacher's paced learning, the students performed better than in Con. III, IV (subject's paced) & Control. In experiment II, 82 subjects participated in this research over a four-day period. Everyday, after the teaching session, each was given a short test. Subjects in the teaching type A were able to correct and elaborate their responses in PFI established before the teaching lesson, while in teaching type B no interval was given. The results indicated superiority of teaching in type A over type B.
One hundred and fifteen children of 2nd, 4th and 6th grades of primary school were asked to judge which of 2 graphic cars moving in parallel on CRT display was in a longer moving duration. Car pairs used, 36 in all, were typical exemplars representative of many combinations of 7 variables (cues): velocity, duration, distance, spatial (start, end) positions and temporal (start, end) positions. Assuming five types of children's answers according to cues used in their duration judgments, and comparing them with actually obtained answers, it was found that most of 2nd graders used spatial and temporal position cues in their judgment, while 6th graders judged mainly on the basis of real duration cue. In 4th graders, an intermediate state was recognized, and individual differences were much greater than others. The above mentioned findings were also confirmed with computer simulation analysis. Differences in results between present and previous studies were discussed, and problems for further investigations were pointed out.
The purposes of this study were 1) to find the types of causal attributions elementary school children made in achievement situations and 2) to find the characteristics of goal settings children classified in each type of attributions showed in a problem solving situation. Cluster analysis found the following 8 types: an unstable type, a stable type, an effort type, a helpless type, a quasi-helpless type, an efficacious type, a modest type, and a self-displaying type. Validity of classification was confirmed by several means; for example: by comparing the degrees of perceived control and the levels of academic achievements. Children classified as helpless and self-displaying types reported low perceived level of success in a problem solving task and also showed problems in goal settings. The relationship between causal attributions and goal settings in achievement situations and its implications to motivation in education were discussed.
This study aimed at clarifying the “personal teaching theory (PTT)” of teachers as to how to give lessons in mathematics. PTT is supposed to be a belief system involved in everyone's teaching activity. The subjects were 592 elementary and 286 junior high school teachers. They were asked to respond to a questionaire with a 6-point bipolar scale, describing actual teaching activities on mathematics. Factor analysis of their responses yielded six factors: Teaching paces (student-centered vs. teacher-centered), Teaching styles (heuristic vs. explanation), Use of materials (textbook-centered vs. flexible use), Homework (required vs. not required), Teaching processes (rigid vs. flexible), Planning lessons (consulting with colleagues vs. self deciding). The PTT profiles of lessons were derived in terms of these six factors; also the profiles were derived toward the students good at mathematics as well as those doing poorly at it.
A moving train (target) disappeared behind a block and subjects were to predict when the target passed on a marker on the block. Three samples of subjects: nursery school children, second-grade primary school children, and university students were asked to participate in the experiment. Analysis of the results shows that the perception of constant velocity and acceleration of university students was direct and accurate, but in both groups of children perception was found to be inaccurate when the target moved with acceleration. It was therefore supposed that the concept of acceleration was lacking in children. It was however found that the perception became accurate after instructions on acceleration were given. It was supposed that children acquired the concept of acceleration only after being instructed. This shows that the concept of acceleration may be formed through instruction.
Two experiments were conducted to test Bryant (1982)'s hypothesis that what is critical to a concept development is not “conflict” as Piaget emphasized but “agreement” between strategies. In Experiment 1, spontaneous measurement was examined with 20 5-and 6-year-old children following Bryant's method in a simpler form. One group proved that the results of their “measurements” using rods agreed with the results of “direct side-by-side comparisons”, while another group proved that the results of their “measurements” conflicted with the results of “direct comparisons from different levels”. The result was that children who experienced agreements made more spontaneous measurements than those experiencing conflicts. In Experiment 2, number onservation was examined with 40 5-and 6-year-old children. One group proved that the results of their “countings” agreed with the results of “one-to-one correspondences” using sticks, while another group proved that the results of their “countings” conflicted with the results of “direct visual comparisons”. The result was that children who experienced agreements conserved numbers of 4 to 10 better than those experiencing conflicts.
The purpose of this study is to propose a criterion for determining the number of common factors. This criterion is called MSCV (Model Selector by Cross Validation), which is an estimator of expected log-likelihood. Through the results of computer simulations, the criterion is shown to be effective for determining the number of common factors in factor analysis. The practical application with such criterion is demonstrated by using standardized data of Japanese WISC-R, made of three common factors.
This study aimed at examining the relation between learning pace and personal traits (cognitive style) together with the effects of PFI (Post-feedback interval) on a concept identification task. Six conditions were composed of learning pace (learner, consistent paced), cognitive style (reflective, impulsive) and the lengths of PFI. The results were as follows: 1) In reflective groups, learner and consistent paced were superior when right after (no PFI group) as in impulsive, consistent pace lead to more efficient learning than did learner and immediate groups, and achieved a learning criterion. 2) SET (Stimulus exposure time) and PFI after error responses were found to be longer than those with correct responses in each group.
To examine the similarity and relevancy between AB error in Stage IV and in Stage V, 6 serial invisible displacement hiding tasks were administered to twelve 12 to 18 month-old babies. Those tasks were combined with two delay-time conditions (0 and 3 sec.) and three conditions of different spatial cues. Similar to Stage IV, both delay-time and spatial conditions were proved to have influenced on the occurrence rate of search errors in Stage V's invisible displacement hiding tasks. Also, residual responses similar to Stage IV were observed. Factors contributing to search errors from Stage IV to V and their developmental changes were argued. Most specifically, baby's tendency to cope at first egocentrically with the new task situation was suggested.
A Japanese edition of new self-report scale of children's perceptions of control, previously developed by Connell (1985), is described here. Perceptions of control are defined as children's understanding of the locus being sufficient causes for successful or unsuccessful outcomes. 3 dimensions of fourth- through sixth-grade children's perceptions of control are independently assessed: internal, powerful others, and unknown. Each of these sources of control is assessed within 3 behavioral domains: cognitive, social, and physical. General items are also included. Perceptions of control over both successful and unsuccessful outcomes are assessed separately. The psychometric properties of the new scale are presented. Correlations of the new scale with measures of perceived competence and hopelessness are reported. It is argued that the new scale is a progress over existing scales of internal versus external locus of control in children because it provides domain-specific assessments of 3 separate dimensions of locus of control, including the previously untapped dimension of unknown control.
Developmental changes of hands in reaching behaviours were investigated in connection with various developmental aspects of an infant during 6-12 month period after birth. Among the periods of general preference of the right hand, a critical period was discernible around the 36th week which was characterized by a relative increase in the usage of the left hand during reaching. When a wooden block toy was held in one of the infant's hands, it functioned as a load on his reaching behaviour before the 36th week. After this period, the toy held in one hand was no more a load, but, on the cont rary, the infant was even able to develop further activities based on the held block, in which two toy blocks were manipulated, for instance. All the results obtained from the present study on a single infant not only agreed with those of the cross-sectional one by Ojima using 183 infants, but also added detailed and qualitative data.
Sixty preschool children were given the conservation tasks and the processing of successive information tasks. The latters were classified in two types: while the first type needed only to maintain information, the second type needed transformation The test scores were factor analyzed and 2 factors were extracted: the first factor, high-loaded by all successive information tasks, was named “successive synthesis”, while the second factor, high-loaded by the conservation tasks and the second type of successive information tasks, was named “planning”. This result was interpreted in relation to Das's information processing model. The process of transforming information was discussed.