The adaptation process of transferred children (New-TC) in grades three to six in new schools was investigated four times in the three-month period following their transference by means of questionnaires which covered physical, interpersonal and socio-cultural environments of the school. Subjects were 40 New-TC, 65 children transferred the previous year (Ex-TC) and 120 children who had been in the schools before Ex-TC (Host-C). The main findings were as follows: (1) New-TC had lower score than Ex-TC and Host-TC in interpersonal transaction with classmates and teachers during their first two periods,(2) New-TC with lower social difficulty, such as feeling of anxiety or difficulty in social situations, showed a tendency for higher score in interpersonal transaction with classmates and teachers,(3) New-TC had lower score than Ex-TC and Host-C in cognition of school facilities and equipments (physical environment) during their first three periods,(4) No difference was found in three groups concerning reception of class (interpersonal environment) and interest of learning (socio-cultural environment). These results were discussed from a microgenetic developmental view-point.
Failure was hypothesized as an antecedent of a reflective style of responding and a quick response as an antecedent of an impulsive style. Failure was manipulated with an instruction to respond correctly (conditioned instruction), and effects and scanning strategies on the MFFT were assessed. The impulsives showed much higher rate in the standard-figure fixation than the reflectives on the MFFT and this result made previous studies acceptable. Scanning strategy patterns were returns 1, 2 and 3, runs 1, 2 and 3. The reflectives showed higher rate than the impulsives in each of these patterns in the normal instruction condition of the first three items (1-3). But, these differences were not found in the last three items (10-12) in the conditioned instruction. Subsequently several implications of these results for the scanning strategy patterns of cognitive style were discussed.
The Exp. 1 examined the responses of 37 infants below 30 months of age, when given unusual two-word instructions, composed of an object (agent)-and an action-word in Japanese such as put the car to bed, feed the ball, and so on. The children were presented a pair of toys-an appropriate inanimate object (a miniature car or a ball) and a perplexing animate one (a doll or an animal toy). Children over 21 months performed correct responses on an average of 5 out of 8 trials. At around 18 months children carried out the appropriate action with a perplexing object such as a reverse response. These changes of responses were ensured by a longitudinal experiment (Exp. 2). This study showed that the knowledge of an animate agent such as eating or sleeping has already existed at around 18 months and that the strategy based on such knowledge disappeared at around 24 months.
In the present paper, we propose an equating method of two scales based upon two separate tests using common subjects' item response patterns for both tests, and to examine the validity of such new equating method. We assume that there are two latent trait ability scales, based upon test X and Y respectively. In this method, each subjects' item response patterns for various tests are obtained, and then maximum likelihood estimates of the equating coefficient k, l are extracted from these data. In this paper, test X and Y are formed with the items in the word meaning comprehension test (Shiba, 1978). By actual subjects' and computer simulational item response data for these tests, the validity of this method is examined in various situations, such as changing the difficulty levels of two tests, the distribution of subjects and the number of subjects. As a consequence, this new equating method proves to be valid in situations where (i) the two tests are not so different in difficulty levels, and (ii) the subjects' ability distributes for a wide range.
Study I examined the development of empathy in young children and presented a new index of empathy for use with young children. The subjects were 140 children aged three to six years old. Each child was taken individually into a room and was asked which card of 4 kinds of cards showed a “happy (or sad, surprised, angry) face?.” They were then read stories with pictures and were asked which card explained the boy (or girl)'s feeling in these stories. The results indicated that even young children could discriminate facial expressions and understand feelings of others, and that empathy developed with age. Study II examined the relation between the empathy of children and that of their mothers. The subjects were 140 children and 235 mothers. The mothers' empathy was measured on the Mehrabian and Epstein's scale (1972). These results support that a higher level of empathy in mothers has more impact on the empathy of children than that of a lower level, and that the mother's warmth and nuturance may produce strong positive feelings in children.
This study examined the structure of preschool children's natural categories by typicality ratings and category membership decisions. Half of 50 5-and 6-year-old children made typicality ratings (3-point scale) as the other half made category membership decisions for the 20 candidate examplars of each of 4 categories: “animal”,“vehicle”,“insect” and “food”. The results were as follows. There were continuous degrees of typicality ratings in two categories. Between-subjects disagreement of category membership decisions was high at intermediate typicality levels, indicating that the category boundary was unclear and fuzzy. Factor analysis and clustering suggested that category extensions of children were different from those of adults.
The main purpose of this study was to examine the stability of children's friendship. on ideal and actual dimensions, and the degree of agreement between the two dimensions. Another purpose was to investigate the relationship of such stability, agreement and children's popularity and friendship reciprocity. The subjects were 112 fifth and sixth graders in 4 classrooms, data were taken four times during one year, i.e. in April, July, September and November. The major findings were: (1) children who had stable friendship relations on the ideal and actual dimensions indicated higher agreement of friends on both dimensions showing higher popularity and a more reciprocated friendship than the other children; (2) children who commonly chose same friends on the ideal and actual dimensions showed higher popularity and had more reciprocated friendship than children who showed differential choices on these two dimensions
The purpose of this study was to develop the Empathy Scale for Children (ESC) and to examine positive relationship between prosocial behavior and empathy measured by ESC. In Study I, the Empathy Scale for Children (ESC), a new self-report measure of empathy in Japanese children, was constructed according to Bryant (1982) and Kato and Takagi (1980). It was administered to 179 fifth and sixth graders; the factor analysis revealed single-factor solution. This scale was also found to have sex difference and high reliability. In Study II, ESC, Sakurai's (1984) Social Desirability Scale for Children (SDSC), and prosocial behavior inventory using method of peer nomination were administered to 156 fifth and sixth graders and the relationships were examined. The partial correlation coefficient between ESC and total prosocial behavior points controlled by SDSC and sex was significantly positive and it supported the hypothesis.
The purpose of this study was to an the contents of conversations between high school students and individuals on being influenced in making their motives concerning their entry into a university. Subjects were 315 third-grade senior high school students (12th grade). A personal interview was conducted for each subject. The results showed that most of the students were influenced by their teachers through conversations with them about their university and future life career, also most of the students influenced by their mothers had conversed with them on the topics irrelevant to the aims of their entering universities. These results indicated that there were contrasting differences between the contents of the conversation of students who were influenced by their teachers and those who were influenced by their mothers. It was noticed that these differences had close connections with their forming of motives on their entering the niversity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental pathways of ego identity status in adulthood by analyzing the relationship among the adolescent identity status, developmental patterns of adult identity and the status in middle age. Method: A semi-structured interview was done to 22 men and women between 41-56 years old. Results: (1) Subjects were classified into the following 4 adolescent identity statuses: Identity Achiever 8, Moratorium 5, Foreclosure 6 and Pre-crisis Diffusion 3. 63.6% of their statuses had changed in middle age.(2) The following 3 points were clarified referring to the developmental pathways of adult identity status: 1) The change probability of identity status in adulthood was considered high. Adolescent statuses had been kept until their late 30's, and those statuses were apt to change in middle age. 2) Those who made active reorganization of identity by the experience of middle age crisis could achieve more matured identity status. 3) The pathways of status-change found through this study proved the model of the sequential patterns of ego identity development by Waterman (1982).
This article examined frameworks in which classroom communicatiom studies were done. Two lines of studies were made. One focusing on the interaction between teachers and students as the main medium of teaching: it was found to be desirable that utterances and their contents would be organized toward a structure of a whole lesson. The other line called ethnographic studies analysed details of communication qualitatively to describe the “rules of classrooms”. Many such studies demonstrated that children at school -as one of social contexts- were expected to learn and to interact in ways particular to that classroom. However, methodological and theoretical elaborationr were needed. In concluding, it seemed important to combine those two lines and to study communication in classrooms in more numerous types and in a wider range of age.