Relative effects of various types of external reinforcements by a teacher on children's intrinsic motivation were investigated. Four reinforcement procedures were examined: verbal feedback, symbolic reward such as testimonial, verbal praise with a slight bodily touch, and control. One of the investigators gave daily 30 minute lessons to 276 children of 2nd and 3rd grades during four consecutive days in their usual classes. After each lesson children were set a home task which they might do or not. For the performance of home task, one of the reinforcements was given every day except for the performance of home task in the 4 th day's lesson, which was regarded as a relative measure of intrinsic moti-vation. Results indicated that the symbolic reward and the praise had detrimental effects on intrinsic motivation, though the performance of home task increased while receiving these reinforcements. Verbal feedback did not have any significant effects on the perfor-mance of home task.
Two experiments were designed to investigate the effect of tracing and copying practice methods on handwriting skills of Japanese letters in young children. In Exp. I, 106 first grade children were randomly divided into three groups ; tracing, copying, and control groups. Only two experimental groups were required to trace or copy 4 katakana letters (o, ta, ya, mo) 5 times in a session for five days. In Exp. II, almost the same procedure was conducted for 77 preschool children (4 and 5 years old) in order to retest the result of Exp. I. The result of both experiments were the same, and for poor handwriters, copying practice was significantly more effective than tracing practice, but for good handwriter, there was no difference among the groups. It was suggested that copying practice should be better than tracing practice for handwriting beginners.
The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate the development of awareness of referential ambiguities in messages. Subjects were 149 preschool children (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) and 45 adults. Each subject was asked to detect message ambiguities by pointing to a question mark in the alternatives and give reasons for such responses. In addition, the subject was required to produce an adequate message about the experimenter's chosen drawing in the alternatives. Results suggested the following several levels of awareness of referential ambiguities. Level 1: Subjects could not recognize ambiguities and specified referents “egocentrically.” Level 2: Subjects could detect ambiguities by behavioral responses, but could not give adequate reasons for such responses. Level 3: Subjects could detect ambiguities and give adequate reasons for the detections. In addition, results showed that it was more difficult to produce adequate messages than to recognize the ambigaities in messages received. These problems of level distinction were discussed in terms of Flavell's meta-cognition theory and Piaget's “grasp of consciousness” theory.
The present study was to examine the relationships between motives for prosocial behaviors and internal-external locus of controls. Rotter's Internal-External scale was administered to 269 male and female university students. A factor analysis of 23 items indicated there were different aspects of internal-external locus of control, and two subscales (Loc I and Loc II) were constructed. Subjects, male and female students, were divided into Internals and Externals based on their subscale scores below or above the median of 190. They were then asked to rate the likelihood of 25 different helping motives as a cause of different 7 prosocial behaviors. Major findings obtained were as follows:(1) Internals of both Loc I and Loc II tended to attribute the prosocial behaviors to higher motives than Externals did, though the pattern of relationships was different between Loc I and Loc II.(2) The pattern of relationships varied according to types of prosocial behaviors and sex. The result suggests that the pattern of effects of internalexternal locus of controls on the motivational process in prosocial behavior depends on the situation.
The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of pre-school children (four to six year-olds) to infer emotions. Subjects were presented a short story and information on a hero's behavior (character), and then were asked to infer the hero's emotions. The result of a series of three experiments showed that younger children tended to infer the hero's emotions using only the situational information, while older children could infer the hero's emotions using not only situational information but also information on the hero's behavior (character) or the knowledge of social categories.
This study aimed at examining whether the computational procedure with abacus would transfer to paper and pencil computation when third grade children had the experience to solve the same problems alternately by abacus and written computational procedures. These third graders were able to solve the problems correctly by abacus, but not always in written computation. The results showed that a transfer between the two computational procedures did not occur easily. It seemed to be due to the following: 1) The two computational procedures were located in different learning contexts and were not necessarily recognized as the same, and 2) Those subjects did not understand the meaning of each step of abacus operation. For example, they failed to recognize the equivalence between the original procedure and the reverse ordered processing on abacus (from units to tens and to hundreds) that could easily be matched with the pape r-andpencil computation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the age difference of children's evaluation of problem solving process. Ss were twenty-one second graders, nineteen third graders and twenty-four fifth graders. The task consisted of five pictures depicting five steps in which a model student solved a mathematics word problem. Four sets of tasks were designed so that each task included an error at four different steps. Subjects were presented with covered material pictures and were asked to uncover the pictures they want to look, and to evaluate whether the given problem solving process was correct. The Main results were as follows: 1) Second and third graders looked less at the step which presented a result than at other steps. No such difference was found in the fifth graders. 2) Second and third graders detected less errors when the error was in the step which presented a result, than when the error was in the other steps, no such difference was found in the fifth graders.
The purpose of this study was to examine the usage of Japanese particles “wa” and “ga” based on speaker's attitude of mind. To consider the education of Japanese for foreigners, hypotheses were built up pragmatically ; a speaker used “wa” to lay emphasis on the following part of a sentence which particles divide, and “ga” to emphasize the preceding phrase. It was opposed to given-new information hypothesis. The first study investigated the different usages of “wa” and “ga” on the first sentences appearing in newspapers. The results showed that “wa” was much used in economic pages as “ga” was rather used in social ones. It suggested that the different usages of “wa” and “ga” were related to a writer's different attitude of mind. The second study investigated different usages by undergraduates when asked to select appropriate particles in given sentences and to write their reasons why they selected them. It suggested that the selection of the particles depended on how to lay emphasis rather than on given-new information.
This study was an attempt to investigate children's (4, 5, 6, 8 years old) narrative skills in terms of causal sequencing. Ss were asked to produce two stories from two sets of nine pictures. If Ss couldn't continue telling, the experimenter prompted them by either strong or weak prompts. First, each story protocol was analyzed into propositions and categorized by content (actions, object states, person's states, mental states); then, stated causal relations were categorized into four types, i.e. Resultant, Initiation, Enablement, and Motivation. The major results were as follows. 1) The numbers of phrases and propositions, and of causal production increased with age. 2) Older children could mention the character's mental states more than younger children. 3) The types of causal relations changed with age. Initially, children's stories were linked together with action-states relations. From 6-years old almost all children could use causal relations with mental states. 4) Strong prompts seemed to have more effect on quantity than weak prompts. But the condition of prompting was unfortunately confounded with frequency of prompts in this study. A more careful study should be planned in the future.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental process of infantile communicative comprehension in a “give and take” task. Three conditions were set up in the experiment, and 60 infants of three age groups were examined. The results were as follows ; (1) “taking” was found in all groups, but “giving” was not found in the 6 months old, and (2) no difference was found in the three condit ions in the reactions of the 6 months old, but on the other hand some differences were found in the 10 and 14 months. These findings suggested that 6 month-old infants could not c omprehend the meaning of communicative behavior, as the comprehension is presumed to begin at around 10 months.
In a first study, friendship patterns among eight moderate and severe cerebral palsied children were examined by sociometric test and by observation. It was shown that children who had poor verbal expression abilities or unable to move by themselves tended to be isolated in the group. But, according to the sociometric test, isolated children were found to wish to communicate with other children. In order to solve these problems, a computer baseball game was applied to the children in a second study. By using a microcomputer and a sensor, children could play the game irrespectively of their handicap. The result of playing this game was that social interaction increased and expanded in the group and new friendship patterns shaped. Such result was interpreted as follows: the participation in the group game contributed to the increase in confidence of isolated children, and the children also better understood each other's abilities.
This paper presents a linear equating procedure which is applicable to the incomplete data of an essay-type test scored by several raters. The procedure is based on a two-step optimizing criterion. In the first step, weight parameters are estimated in order to mutually equate dispersions of raters. In the second step, additive constants for equating means are obtained on condition that weight parameters are fixed. A numerical example is given to illustrate the efficacy of the procedure.