The alternative model of reflection-impulsivity presented by Salkind and Wright (1977) consisting of an impulsivity dimension and an efficiency dimension was examined. Three types of MFF-like problems requiring different information-processing strategies were administrated to 28, 5-, 35, 6- and 36, 7-year-old children. In one set, the variants differed from the standard in the contour of the figures, thus requiring global analysis. In the second and third set, the differences were found in one and some details inside the figures, respectively, thus requiring analysis of details. Impulsivity score had no relation to the age of the children, whereas efficiency score was significantly associated with the age. Impulsivity scores of 3 types MFF-like problems related significantly with each other, while efficiency scores of those problems showed little relation. These results supported Salkind's integrated model as a more functional procedure assessing cognitive style and information-processing efficiency.
The present study aimed at examining the effects of class rearrangement of host classes on peer relationship of transferred children, and the validity of the use of the psychological distance map (PDM) for assessing the interpersonal psychological distances among elementary school children. Subjects were 40 third- to sixth-grade children and their classmates. Assessments were made four times over a three-month period after transference in April by the PDM. Psychological distances on the PDM in the two sampled classes significantly correlated each with choice in the sociometric test, frequencies in interaction observed during free play time, and the order on the rating scales for intimacy. Transferred children in fifth-and sixth-grade non-rearranged classes had lower status indexes assessed by PDM than host members in April. No such differences were found in rearranged fifth- and sixth-grade classes and in all third-and fourth-grade classes. Effects of class rearrangement on peer relationship of transferred children were discussed from a developmental point of view.
From a double point of view, a longitudinal study was done to find out, whether a child's concept of space advanced through Piaget's stage: (1) Would a high degree order be found on the developmental course of a child's concept of space? ; and (2) would a mental homogeneity be found in it? For the study subjects were made of a 4-year-old and a 5-year-old group. They were required to perform seven kinds of tests on the concept of space, and conservation test. Results were as follows: (1) Means of each test, correlations between chronical age and each test showed that a child's concept of space advance in chronological order. But the transition from one stage to the next was vague, and many different features were found in the same stage.(2) The correlations among eight tests were found low. A common factor for all tests was not found, and the developmental course differedindividually. From these results, it was difficult to support Piaget's stage theory with homogeneity.
Korean is a language that have both postpositional particles of topic marker (-eun/ neun) and nominative marker (-i/ga). The purpose of this study was to examine the acquisition of these particles in view of agentivity. We defined agentivity of a particle as the probability in which a noun phrase with the particle is processed as the agent of a sentence. Eighty Korean native speakers of 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 years old and adults were instructed to listen to simple noun-noun-verb sentences and to judge which noun was the agent by acting out the sentences using miniature animals and objects. Stimulus sentences consisted of 18 sentence types composed of particle (3) × word order (2) × noun animacy (3) combinations. The results showed that the agentivity of the nominative maker was higher than that of the topic marker in the adult's responses and it was at twelve years old when the level of agentivity came up to an adult's level. This tendency was quite similar to the way of the processing of Japanese particles: topic “-wa” and nominative “-ga”.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of overt rehearsal in immediate and delayed recognition for preschoolers in relation to phonological and semantic encoding using the false recognition paradigm. Thirty-two children of five years old were asked to study 2 lists of 7 words presented auditorily, with rehearsing overtly or covertly. Following each study list, they were immediately given the recognition lists including distractors, which were phonologically similar or semantically related to the old items. And the delayed recognition test was conducted 2 days after. The results revealed that overt rehearsal seemed to enhance the subjects' performance for the lists including phonologically similar distractors, only in the immediate recognition but not in the delayed test. It was also indicated that, contrary to our expectation, semantic encoding was not inhibited by overt rehearsal. The subjects who had rehearsed the presented stimuli overtly, could not reject semantically related distractors adequately, suggesting that such a semantic encoding was also facilitated to some extent. These findings were discussed with reference to developmental shifts of memory attributes.
The present study was proposed to clarify the developmental change of empathy in childhood. Subjects participating in this research were made of 120 first graders, 120 third graders, and 120 sixth graders at elementary school. Each subject was asked to respond to Feshbach & Roe (1968)'s Affective Situation Test (AST). Empathy scores among girls were found to be higher than those of boys in first and 6th graders. Age x “In-and out-group” conditions interaction proved significant. This finding revealed that the empathy score decreased with age under Out-group condition. The empathy scores in In-group increased from first to third grade, still showed no significant change across upper grades. Similarity between sex and story figures had no significant effect on the empathy scores in children. A qualitative analysis showed that 6th graders presented responses at a higher stage of empathic understandings of others than third graders. No sex difference in children's empathic understandings of others was seen.
This study was designed to investigate the development of the discourse function of Japanese postpositional particles “wa” and “ga”: “wa” indicating old information and “ga” showing new information. After given an old information, 72 nursery or kindergarten children were presented by tape recorder four types of sentences: (1) sentences with “wa”,(2) sentences lacking but requiring “wa”,(3) sentences with “ga”, and (4) sentences lacking but requiring “ga”, and were urged to repeat in the form of a sentence with particle. Preschool children uttered the adequate particle more frequently in the cases of sentences with particle and sentences requiring “ga” than in the cases of sentences laking particle and sentences requiring “wa”, respectively. Most frequent errors were due to the deletion of particle.
The purposes of this study were twofold: to investigate the extent of the disturbance of length conservation by optical illusions, and the ways of solving or dissolving contradictions between real and apparent length. Subjects were 55 kindergarteners and 83 school children. The main results follow: 1) The optical illusions were effective in nonconservers ; with advancing in age, the effects of these illusions decreased ; 2) Five types of coping with the contradictions were found out: I-Impossible, II-Unappropriate dissolving, III-Appropriate dissolving, IV-Particular solving, and V-General solving. Type I largely appeared in 4-8 years old while suddenly decreased in 9-10 years old. Type IV showed sudden increase in 9-10 years old and type V in 11-12 years old. These findings showed that around 9-10 years of age, the distinction between real and apparent length became possible, and two years later the distinction was generalized.
The purposes of the present study were to examine reliability and validity of Japanese version of Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale (REIS). REIS, Trait-Anxiety Inventory, Identity Diffusion Scale, and Self-Esteem Scale were administered to 245 university students. Reliability of Rasmussen's Scale were assessed by split-half method and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. REIS were also administered a week later in order to analyze test-retest reliability. Correlations were performed between REIS and other three measures to examine concurrent and criterion-related validity. The results showed that REIS was a reliable and valid measure for Japanese university students. The necessity of future studies using this scale was suggested.
Three probabilistic indices were proposed for interpreting major types of statistical results obtained in behavioral research: the probability of concordance as an index of correlation, and two versions of the probability of dominance being indices of mean difference in the case of randomized and paired data, respectively. Charts for finding confidence intervals for their population values were provided. The relationships of these indices with certain nonparametric statistics were also noted.
The present study was to investigate children's self-evaluation of their past, present, and future, and to set the stages of developmental process based upon the results. The method employed was to ask children to give their preference or rejection of “younger age”,“actual age”, and “older age” with its reasons. The analysis of the data led us to set the following three stages of the developmental process in children. The first stage, in which children chose their actual age as the best for the main reasons that they had become aware of their development in various abilities together with a greater amount of experience. In the second stage, they chose their actual age as best, but not so positively as in the first stage, because they were enjoying their actual life. In the third stage, they viewed their actual age in the negative, the largest number choosing the older age as the best while the second largest choosing the younger age.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental process of joint visual attention and response to pointing in infants from 3 to 8 months old. In experiment I, target object was not set up, and in experiment II, target object was set up in the direction of experimenter's regard or pointing. The results obtained from experiment I were as follows ; (1) joint visual attention was found in 3 months, and (2) regarding the direction of pointing was hardly found in all months. The results obtained from experiment II were different from those of experiment I ; (1) regarding the direction of pointing was found in 3 months, while (2) regarding the pointing of finger was not found. These results indicated that joint visual attention was brought about from 3 months, and responses to pointing was closely related to existence of target object.