This study was designed to find out the developmental process of linguistic framework for information processing in deaf and normal children. Subjects were children aged 7 to 17 years. Their responses in word-association showed two kinds of structures of the framework. One of them was composed of idiomatic phrases or sentences while the other was composed of words only. With normal children, it was observed that the former developed into the latter: however, with deaf children, the development was reversely evolved. There were two types of children's responses: contradictory and contrary types. These different types suggested different ways in processing. In the former, informations seemed to be divided into two groups,“A” and “non-A”, and in the latter,“A” and “anti-A”. While the former type developed into the latter, another period was observed between these two periods, in which perceptual imagery was explained in words. With deaf children, the information processing of the contrary type suffered a delay of 5 to 6 years. Such delay seemed to proceed from the delay observed in the preceding two periods.
The present experiment was designed to examine so-called “thematic material effect” on logical performance in a reasoning task. In particular, the four cards problem was used to elicit preferences for various logical and illogical problem-solving strategies. The result showed that high performance in D'Andrade's “receipts task” was not due to thematic material effect but to cards shape not equivalent to that used in D'Andrade's “label factory task”, and therefore the effect was more apparent than real in the sense that the high performance was caused by illogical problem-solving strategies. Based on such evidence,“schema theory” and “viewpoint theory” purporting to explain thematic material effect were then criticized. Finally, the author proposed a new theory called “degeneration theory” and cast doubt on the idea of domain-specific knowledge.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of image-arousal and semantic congruity on free and cued recall. The experiments involved orienting task in incidental memory paradigms. Fifty subjects were asked to rate the degree of semantic congruity between a sentence frame and its target in Experiment I. In Experiment II, 40 subjects were asked to rate the vividness of image aroused by the sentence frame and its target. Experiment I and II results showed that congruity effects were lacking when the sentence frame and its target aroused vivid image, but congruity provided for higher free and cued recall when the sentence frame and its target aroused dull image. The above inconsistent effects of congruity were discussed in terms of bizarreness of mental image and distinctiveness in retrieval.
In this study, factors affecting pupils' learning motivation were identified and the discrepancies between pupils' perceptions to the effect of the factors and those of teachers' were examined. Elementary school pupils' motivation was accelerated when they themselves felt positive about their work, or when their teachers showed positive behavior toward them, but impeded when any negative judgment or behavior was shown from other persons, or when feeling bored or tired. At the junior high school level, students' motivation was enhanced by their own sense of positiveness and by their teachers' positive attitude toward them as well as by their friendly relations with their fellow students, but impeded by negative judgment or attitude from their teachers or other persons. Concerning the discrepancies of perceptions, both elementary school and junior high school teachers have estimated those factors in acceleration as “accelerating” much more than pupils or students have done. Concerning factors in impediment, elementary school teachers were seen to perceive these factors as more “impeding” than did junior high school teachers.
The present experiment was to investigate the development of behavior control as “persistence of inhibition” of hand movement on an horizontal plane. Sixty-nine preschool children were asked to move the ASCII Mouse on an horizontal plane as slowly as possible. Factor designs were 2 lateral movements of the hand: dominant hand, nondominant hand with 3 oriental movements: horizontal, vertical and diagonal, by 4 different levels of developmental age: 3, 4, 5, 6 years. Each condition consisted of two trials: a Base trial requiring to move the Mouse without any instruction about speed ; a Slow trial requiring to move the Mouse as slowly as possible. The main result were as follows: (a) In the Slow trial, 6-year-old children moved more slowly than the 5 years.(b) 4 years can modify “persistence of inhibition” in Slow trial in comparison with that in Base trial more than 3 years. In the discussion, 4 years can control the movement by holding Base trial and Slow trial in the relation of a pair. 6 years can control the movement and persist of inhibition by seriating the speed (ex. fast, middle, slower, slo west).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the way children make a plan when attempting to solve an “ill-structured” problem. 4-, 5-, 6-, and 8-year-old children were requested to build something like a stair-case with small blocks so a doll can walk up a big block. The developmental trends of behavior in the preparing process, in the building process, and in the judging process were analyzed. The main results were as follows: 1) by the age of 6, children became able to orient their operations according to the conditions of the problem, 2) above the age of 6, their operation began to be internalyzed and took shape, 3) when the orientation was completed, a basic unit of operations was internalyzed. As compared with the case of “well-structured” problem solving, orientation may play a more important role in planning.
The present study examined the way preschool children acted in a drama. Children of the same age in pairs were asked to enact in a drama made of a story they had listened to. The drama was examined from four viewpoints.(1) As monitors of one another: 5 or 6 year-old children reproduced more episodes concerning the story than 4 year-old ones did, and they better helped each other to enact a drama.(2) Expression of a role: 5 year-old children more often deviated from the expression of their own roles than might have done 6 year-olds.(3) Understanding of a role: As for 5 year-old children, one often told the other what to do while waiting impatiently for the partner to start acting. Older children tended to look at each other.(4) Understanding of fictitiousness: Older children tended to tell the story to each other in whispers showing a certain discrimination between fiction and reality. Older children were more conscious in reproducing the exact story and the fictitiousness of the drama.
This study examined the features of responses to facial stimuli in autistic children. Subjects were five normal children (mean CA=8:2), and seven autistic children (mean CA=9:4; mean MA=3:5). Facial stimuli were divided into five kinds: joy, anger, sadness, comfort, and neutral. Each was drawn in both a schematic and a concrete pattern, respectively. In each pattern, two different stimuli were presented in pair with a ten-second duration, and gaze behaviors to the stimuli were video-tape recorded according to the corneal reflection method. The main results were as follows;(1) Normal children looked longer at the pleasant facial stimuli than the unpleasant ones for both a schematic and a concrete pattern. Autistic children also showed the same tendency for a concrete pattern.(2) Normal children looked at the facial stimuli with a definite strategy; they showed an “orienting response” to either stimulus at first, then “compared” them, and lastly “prefered” one of them. However, autistic children showed no such a systematic process.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate how young children regulate their communicative means for request in response to a listener's feedback. 56 children.(range, 0: 10-2: 6) and a tester were videotaped in three kinds of structured “frustration” settings. Major results were as follows.(1) Children older than 1: 6 could regulate their communicative means and try hard to clarify their requests against the ignoring listener.(2) From 1: 10, in addition to the above-stated regulation, children began to regulate their social relation with the listener. Furthermore, some two-year-old children began to be sensitive to the listener's point of view and soften their requests.(3) At 1: 2-1: 5, children could not regulate their communicative means by themselves but could regulate them in response to the listener's feedback. In this case, this feedback was considered to function as a kind of “scaffolding”.
Kindergarten children and undergraduates were given a 2-category classification task to a learning criterion and then were given two probe trials to assess whether the categorization mode had been holistic or analytic. Both children and adults learned more easily the Similarity + Dimension (S+D) task which could be classified on the basis of overall similarity and a criterial dimension than the Similarity (S) task which could be classified on the basis of overall similarity only. In the S+D task both children and adults used the analytic mode more frequently than the holistic mode, whereas in the Stask they used the holistic mode more frequently than the analytic mode. Discussion was made with reference to previous studies and a general developmental trend from holistic to analytic modes.
In this research, a new computer program for an adaptive testing procedure was developed in order to measure the verbal ability more efficiently than other existing procedures. This procedure was based on an item response theory. This program automatically controlled the selection of test items while administering the test so that the items administered to each subject would be optimum in their difficulties and discriminating powers. And the result of the experiment showed that the efficiency of the adaptive testing procedure was superior to the conventional one.