Two experiments were conducted to examine whether children would take into account the foreseeability of the outcomes an actor would accidentally produce in judging responsibility. The foreseeability was expected to differ according to situations connected with the event or according to the ability of the actor to foresee the effect of his conducts. Second, fourth and sixth grade children and undergraduates participated in the study. In Experiment 1, subjects were presented 10 stories in which an actor uninten -tionally caused a negative outcome. Subjects were asked to rate the degree of respon -sibility and foreseeability attributed to the actor. In Experiment 2, subjects were presented 5 pairs of stories. In each pair two actors of different age or different occupation were to cause the identical outcome. Subjects were asked to judge which person was more responsible and were asked to give reasons proving their judgements. Subjects of all age groups used the foreseeability of the situation in judgments. However, the 2nd graders and 4th graders would not infer the difference in actors' ability to foresee the outcomes when the difference was not explicit.
Effects of sorting stimulus figures on a subsequent free and cued recall in kindergarten children (4 year-3 months to 6 year-6 months) were investigated. In Experiment 1, children were imposed sorting figures randomly disposed according to their color or categorical concept. They were then tested for free recall, followed by color-cued or conceptual-cued recall. Correct responses in cued recall increased by the conceptual sorting task and by giving the conceptual cues. The accordance of the cue given in the sorting task with the one in recall facilitated cued recall. In Experiment 2, the effects of imposing figure-sorting and the way of the disposition of stimulus figures were tested. Figure-sorting facilitated correct responses in cued recall. In addition, children responded more correctly when clustered disposition of stimuli was used in the stimulus figure presentation period than in the random one. The results were discussed in terms of encoding specificity and accessibility of information.
Correspondences and correlations between early language development and the manipulation of objects and play development were examined through a longitudinal study of four children. Significant positive correlations were found between number of different words and the percentage of occurence of pretend self-play, pretend other-play and the total of symbolic play. The emergence of the first word corresponded to the onset of functional-relational manipulation and container-relational manipulation. The emergence of used referential word corresponded to the onset of enactive naming acts. The emergence of demonstrative words (for example, this, here) corresponded to the onset of substitution play. Word-chains of interjection and independent words emerged three weeks after the onset of combinatorial symbolic play. Word-chains of two independent words emerged three weeks before the onset of combinatorial symbolic play with two combined themes. Language, and the manipulation of objects and play both reflected the development of underlying symbolic ability, developing in parallel at the single-word stage. After the emergence of word-chains, they developed interdependently.
The purpose of this study is to propose an exploratory correlation analysis method for two or more variable groups. This analysis method can be used when there is no hypothesis about correlation structure of variable groups. It is easy to interpret simultaneously the correlation structure within each variable group and between variable groups. Through the results of computer simulations, this analysis method is shown to be effctive for analyzing correlation structure of two variable groups. The practical application of this method is demonstrated by using Eve's semantic data (Osgood & Luria, 1954).
Personal Learning Theory refers to the belief system each learner has toward his/her own learning activities. The major purpose of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of the PLT by administering a questionnaire to two hundred and twenty-one high school students. The questionnaire consisted of twenty-eight paired items concerning students' daily learning. Five factors were extracted by means of a factor analysis. The tendencies of English learning among Japanese students were: 1) cramming, 2) running exercises quickly when facing a difficult problem, 3) keeping one's own pace, 4) flexibly changing one's plans and/or methods, and 5) seeing one's friends as rivals. The author applied the data pattern analysis, or the profile analysis, in order to make the results understandable. The typical patterns, found most frequently among the subjects, were where they cram, run exercises quickly when facing a difficult problem, and keep their own paces in learning English.
Independence is, as often said, one of the most important factors in child's personality development, and of the most interesting subjects in the field of child's growth. In this report on child's independence, two subjects were studied. One was to analyze the factors of independence of 8 & 9-year-old from their replies to the questionnaire developed by the author mainly referring to the “Diagnostic Test of Independence (D.T.I.)”. The questionnaire included 45 items with a 4-point scale for responses. The second subject was to find correlation between the factors of ‘independence’ and ‘causal attribution’ measured with Kambara et. al. Causal Attribution Scale for lower grade primary school children. These two scales were distributed to 136 third-graders. As a result, the following six factors of independence were extracted: 1. Self-decision-making, 2. Autonomous life style, 3. Spontaneous self expression, 4. Decision for action, 5. Steady life style, 6. Challenging. It was also found that a relation between ‘independence’ and ‘causal attribution’ was most distinct with factors No.4 and No.6.
The present study aimed at constructing a new cognitive mode questionnaire. Fifty items were selected mainly in reference to studies on signal system predominance types by I. P. Pavlov and his followers. Were tested 450 students from three universities, and the results were factor-analyzed using principal factor method and varimax rotation. Two factors, i. e., analysis and abstraction Factor I, and imagery and imagination Factor II, could be identified from 20 items (10 items to each factor). The reliability of the questionnaire was tested on 1137 students using test-retest, split-half and internal consistency methods. Also, 687 students helped evaluating the construct validity based on the differences in majors at the universities.
“Ijime” (in Japanese, a rough equivalent of bullying) is a serious social phenomenon in which some school children are frequently and systematically harassed and attacked by their peers. In this study, differences of negative attitude toward a deviator and conformity to majority were investigated in connection with various roles (victims, assailants, bystanders, spectators, mediators, and unconcerned persons) in the “ijime” situation. The subjects, 195 junior high school students, were asked to respond to a questionnaire which measured (a) negative attitude toward a deviator and (b) conformity to the group in various situations. Major findings obtained were as follows: (1) Regarding attitude: there were no significant differences among the above six roles.(2) Regarding conformity: several significant differences were found in every role. In general, the conformity level of assailants was higher than that of mediators.(3) The result of multivariate analysis suggested that the victims were more deviant in both attitude and conformity than in any other roles.
The hypothesis, proposed by Sakurai (1984) according to Hammer (1965) and Koppitz (1968), that big and small human figure sizes drawn by children indicate low perceived competence while medium human figure sizes indicate high perceived competence was examined. Of the revised Japanese edition of the Perceived Competence and Acceptance Scale for Kindergarteners (Sakurai & Sugihara, 1985), both cognitive and sports subscales were administered to 53 five or six-year-old kindergarteners. In the same month, the subjects drew pictures of their own bodies on “framed” paper. The drawings were assessed on two different measures: body height and body area. The hypothesis was supported for the relationship between body area and perceived cognitive competence. Some problems were discussed and new methods of testing the hypothesis were proposed.
This study investigated the development of preschoolers' drawing compositions of complex three-dimensional structures. The task was to draw two kinds of complex threedimensional structures by tactile exploration first. and then by visual exploration. On assumption that children will employ such drawing strategies as to combine diagrams which correspond to sides of the structure, drawing compositions were analysed by angles from which sides of the structure were drawn (angles of drawing diagrams) and by the combination forms of diagrams. As a result, most of the 5-year-old children utilized diagrams corresponding to orthogonal projections of particular sides of the structure and combined them as if the structure were seen from multiple viewpoints. On the other hand, 6-year-old children utilized diagrams corresponding to orthogonal projections of several sides of the structure and combined them as if the structure were seen either from multiple viewpoints or from a single one. This study suggested that preschoolers were gradually able to employ several drawing strategies properly according to different contexts.
The development of 3 to 6-year-old children's orienting activity was investigated by examining the accuracy of their estimation as to whether they could jump over an object. Sixty children in each age group were put into three different conditions of jumping. In Standard Condition, the children stood in front of a white line and stepped back as far as possible from where they judged to be able to jump and then were to jump from there. In Physically Loaded Condition, the children performing under the same condition as described above except for a cushion they were to hold in their arms. In Objectively Loaded Condition, the similar procedure was employed except that the children had to jump on a 30×30cm-mat whithout falling out of it.Analyses of the discrepancy between their estimation and actual performance showed that (a) orienting activity developed all through the 3 to 6 year-old bracket, and (b) 6-year-old children's orienting activity was shown differenciating according to conditions.
This study examined the effect of manipulative experiences on object choice in infants. In Experiment 1, subjects were given opportunities to manipulate a big object (difficclt to grasp) and a small object (easy to grasp) successively, and before and after the two manipulative trials, they were presented with these two objects in pairs in order to test their preferences. The results were as follows ; 7, 8-month-old infants had a tendency to choose a big one, which was independent of their manipulative experiences. 9, 10-month-old infants tended to choose a smaller one after manipulative trials, tendency considered related to manipulative experiences. But such tendency was observed only for the pairs which infants had opportunities to manipulate. In Experiment 2, 9, 10-month-old infants were given the same two objects as in Experiment 1, but these were covered with transparent cups during manipulative trials. In such condition, infants didn't show a tendency to choose a small object after manipulative trials. These results lead to the conclusion that manipulative experiences had an effect on 9, 10-month-old infants' object choice.
The present paper is a report of practical research in general psychology in a college. Psychological experiments using 42 personal computers (Hitachi B16/EX) were introduced for the following purposes: (1) to understand research methods of psychology through the experience of participating in experiments,(2) to know the characteristics of a computer and its applicability to various kinds of problem solving. The students specializing in economics, were given BASIC programs and were to carry out experiments concerning memory and perception. This method was supported by most students, in that they were interested in using a computer and conducting experiments for themselves. However, some students complained of being unable to well understand the meaning of each experiment and the significance of computer-experimentation. Finally, the position of such usage in computer education and its influence on the progress of psychology were discussed.