This article considers a new multidimensional Item Response Model called “OR Model”; it also presents the application of the model to TPI data. The TPI is a kind of personality Inventory. In the questionnaire data, the subject's response to an item is almost always under the influence of multidimensional traits. In this model, it is assumed that the response to an item occurs whenever at least one of the subject's traits is considered high enough. It means that the subject's response to an item would be explained by the disjunctive condition that exists between latent traits rather than the conjunctive condition. On the other hand, in the test data, the conjunctive condition may be preferable to the disjunctive condition, so this model is very useful in analyzing questionnaire data. In the applications of this model, the plausibility of the model and its effectiveness are confirmed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of primary and secondary rehearsal duration on recall and recognition. In two experiments, primary reheasal and secondary rehearsal were separated by using directed forgetting paradigm and each rehearsal duration was manipulated. Subjects were shown four lists of words. Following each word there was a primary rehearsal interval ranging from 0 to 12 seconds. After this interval, the subjects were cued to either forget the word (F word) or to try to remember the word (R word), and then followed by a secondary rehearsal interval ranging also from 0 to 12 seconds. At the end of each list the subjects were asked to recall all of the R words, followed by a final recall and recognition of all the words at the end of the experiment. As a result, primary rehearsal duration did not facilitate any recall, but did a recognition. On the other hand, secondary rehearsal duration facilitated both recall and recognition. These results were interpreted as a recently proposed distinction between intra- and inter-item processing.
The present study was designed to examine the effects of self-evaluation of preschool children on painting behavior and the changing of internal evaluation-standard. The subjects were59 preschool children (M.A. =5). Subjects were submitted to the following conditions: inner-standard self-evaluation (IS-SE), external-standard self-evaluation (ESSE), external-standard other-evaluation (ES-OE), no-evaluation,(CON). The subjects attended the training trials of painting and evaluation for 5 days and then evaluated their own paintings and others, in order to measure the internal-standard, before and after training trials. Results showed that ES-SE progressively improved their performance better than ES-OE and CON. Moreover their standard for others' performance was improved after training period, while their own showed no improvement. It was suggested that the effects of self-evaluation on children's behavior depended on the showing of the evaluation-standard.
Misjudgement that areas are the same when their circumferences are identical is often made by pupils. The phenomenon has been interpreted by poor ability of discrimination between areas and circumferences and/or non-maturity of cognition in area. The present study, however, shows (a) that the phenomenon is not observed in less mature preschoolers, but emerges about the time of entering school,(b) that the origin of misjudgement is connected with acquirement of conservation,(c) that the phenomenon is caused by generalization of conservation legitimate in weight and volume, but not in area during transformation,(d) that conservation of area is supported by continuity of transformation at first, and (e) that circumferences, then, are extracted as the index of conservation through continuity and begin to show an influence on judgement in area.
Two experiments were designed to inve stigate the effect of the combination of tracing and copying practices on handwriting skills of Japanese letters in young children. In Exp. I, 178 first grade children were randomly divided into five groups and required the following practices using Chinese characters (usi, ke, tomo, to): (1) tracing group, tracing the material 5 times in three consecutive days ; (2) copying group, copyingthe same material in the same way during 3 days ; (3) tracing-copying group, tracing the material 5 times in the first day and copying them in the second and third day ; (4) copying-tracing group, copying the material 5 times in the first and sec ond day and tracing them in third day ; (5) control group, no practice. In Exp. II, 63 preschool children (5 and 6 years old) served as subjects under the condition (1),(2), and (3). Tracing-copying practices were the most effective method of handwriting skill acquisition for first graders who had been learning it for over half a year in elementary school, while tracing-copying practices were no more than copying practices for preschool children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how children understood the plot of animated cartoons. Elementary school children from 1st grade through 6th grade and college students were to watch a T.V. cartoon. And then, they were asked about the story. The content of the interview consisted of two points: One was about the recall of the story, i.e., how much they would remember the content of the story, and the other was about the understanding of the characters, i.e., what attitudes they have toward them. The main results were as follows: 1) All groups of Ss remembered the story in structurally organized manner, but 2) the lower graders' recall was more episodic ; 3) Elementary school children were seen to have more extreme attitudes toward the characters than college students. It was concluded that story understanding was at first based on fragmentary information gradually becoming based on more integrated information.
In this paper, effects of various types of evaluation on intrinsic motivation were investigated in junior high school students. Four evaluation procedures were examined: self evaluation, teacher evaluation, teacher evaluation with self-marking, and control. Results indicated that (a) the expectation of evaluation by a class teacher decreased while the self evaluation increased their intrinsic motivation not only for the task concerned but also for all the tasks given during the experimental period,(b) the self-marking increased their intrinsic motivation only for the task concerned, and (c) interactions between these effects of evaluations and level of initial intrinsic motivation were not clear.
This study examined the coincidences or similarities of attitudes between mother and father in rearing the it handicapped child. The Taken Test of Parental Attitudes toward Child-Rearing (included 10 subscales) was carried out on 800 parents: handicapped child's mothers (200) and fathers (200), and normal child's mothers (200). and fathers (200). The data of the four groups were analyzed separately according to the principal factor method, and the canonical correlation analysis between the attitudes of the father and mother was carried out on the handicapped and normal groups respectively. The calculated three canonical correlation values for normal groups were 0.586, 0.518, and 0.490, significantly. The pattern of struct ure vectors corresponding to each correlation highly coincided with the factor pattern obtained from factor analysis in both cases of mother and father. In contrast, for the handicapped groups, two correlation coefficients were calculated. Their values were 0.622 and 0.464, significantly, and the pattern of structure vectors did not show any coincidence with the factor patterns obtained from the factor analysis.
The purpose of this paper was to investig ate the effects of the affiliative cues of teachers and the test anxiety of children on the task performance. Two undergraduate students were trained for two different types of teacher role: either using level of high affiliative or low affiliative cues. They were then requested to give the instruction rega rding the answering of the Cording Test for WISC-R in the four classes of second graders. The two instructors interchanged their positions. The results confirmed that children taught under high affiliative condition performed higher than those under low affiliative condition, either found high or low in test anxiety. The attitude scale which was completed after the task indicated that the children under high affiliative condition showed higher positive attitude toward their learning task and their teacher as opposed to those under a low affiliative condition.
Children in second and fifth grades were tested in their ability to construct linear orders from premises such as “The red pencil is longer than the black one, the black one is longer than the white one.” These were presented successively and visually. Six alternative models were used for the data of each group of second and fifth graders, and of good and poor reasoners. The results in former grouping were that the error data of second graders were conformed to a linguistic model, while those of fifth graders were conformed to a spatial model. Those in latter grouping were that poor reasoners didn't use the same strategy as that of second graders but made more errors at the stage of processings in memory than good reasoners. It was concluded that the strategic shift was occurring according to the aging development, and that the expertise was depending upon one's memory capacity.
A quantitative research on self-efficacy has been reported in recent years. We reviewed these studies under five major topics as follows: studies on phobics, studies on selfcontrol, studies on achievement, field studies and development of self-efficacy scales. Mainly, we pointed out two critical issues concerning the conception of self-efficacy: the first point concerned the uniqueness of the concept, or whether efficacy expectancy could be clearly distinguished from outcome expectancy. The second issue was related to the causal relationship between self-efficacy and behavior. From these two points of view, recent researches were critically reviewed and theoretical issues were discussed.