The purpose of this study was to inv estigate the effect of mother's lapping on imitation of facial gestures in early infancy. In Exp. 1, 1-, 3-, 7-, month old infants were presented mouth openings and tongue protrusions by the experimenter, on the condition of being whether on their mother's lap or alone or on a stranger's lap. The result showed that imitations appeared at 1 month, and reached its peak at 3 months, then decreased at 7 months. Concerning the mother's presence on imitation, 3-, and 7-, month old infants revealed more imitations on their mother's lap than alone or on a stranger's lap. In Exp. 2, 4-, 7-, 10-, month old infants were presented with the same gestures under the condion of being whether they were on their mother's lap or beside one's mother without touching. The result showed that the mother's lapping was more efficient than any other condition. It was suggested that the facial imitation is closely related to the hapto-postural recognition of attachment which is based on socio-emotional communication.
This study examined the developmental process of drawing activity during the socalled scribbling stage, based on a longitudinal observation of my daughter from 0-3 years of age.The purpose of the research was to analyze developmentally the repre -sentational nature of drawing activity under social interaction.The main results were as follows: (1) The developmental process of drawing was divided into six stages with regard to pre-representational or representational drawings.(2) Intention or topics of drawing occurred early under social interaction with mother and others. Under such shared topics, developmentally first, she made marks on the drawing made by another; secondly, on particular parts of the drawing, and lastly, she participated in the joint drawing task.(3) In naming, intention of drawing and figurative expression, drawing under social interaction preceded a drawing by herself.(4) Since2years of age, she had reached the stage of drawing a figurative representation.
The first purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of Ego Identity Status by using self-reported measure of Rasmussen's EIS. Its second purpose was to investigate sex differences in the resolution of identity and intimacy crises. Method: An EIS was first administered to 68 male and 66 female university students. Subjects were categorised as high and low in ego identity on the basis of EIS scores as follows: high if their EIS score was greater than third quartile, and low if their EIS score was less than first quartile. A semi-structured interview of ego identity and intimacy was then done to 15 male and 15 female students who were categorized as high, and 15 male and 15 female students considered as low. Results: In both sexes, more subjects classfied as high than subjects classified as low were in the higher identity statuses. In all areas except sex role, male and female demonstrated similar patterns of identity crisis resolutions. More females than males were in the higher intimacy statuses. More male than female were associated between identity and intimacy crisis resolution.
“Dakedo” is a conjunction which is used to connect the premise and its implication. The purpose of this study is to investigate the kind of implications derived from a premise through the conjunction “dakedo”, and the developmental change in its use. Students in 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th grades, and university undergraduates participated in the study. In the first investigation, they were asked to fill the blanks after the premise+“dakedo”. In the second, they were asked to rate the use of “dakedo” if it was used properly in a sentence. The results showed that implications were made from the premise by logical conversion, pragmatic inference, analogical inference, and referring to the premise. Also, the results showed that the use of “dakedo” developed differently, that is, the use of “dakedo” with pragmatic inference and reference was acquired through elementary school, but the use of “dakedo” with logical conversion and analogical inference took more time to be acquired until the university level.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the divergent phases of ego identity in late adolescent girls and try to grasp them developmentally from the viewpoint of the two aspects of ego directivity (by Neuman 1950). In analysis 1, a questionnaire was carried out by 160 college women. This questionnaire was derived from Mercia (1964)'s ego identity interview requesting descriptive answers mainly on 4 areas (sexual identity, reciprocal relation with her mother, a sense of value, life plan). The results suggested that the phases of identities in each area were closely related, and 7 patterns of inclusive identity were found. In analysis 2, the relationships between the phases of identity found in analysis 1 and the two aspects of ego directivity (unitedness-separativeness) were investigated. The results suggested the effectiveness of these dimensions to the grasp of the divergent phases in late adolescent girls, and it was clarified that “Achievers” were most advanced in these two aspects.
In order to comprehend how autistic children showed activity patterns at nursery school and to enable us to give early a better diagnosis and a better approach of young autistic children the “H-form Rating Scale for Handicapped Children” (HRSH) was made. This rating scale was composed of seven scales for pathology of human relationship and of twenty scales for developmental skills (self-help ability, gross motor movement, etc.) and of carrier age. A correlation matrix of 28 orders was factor analyzed. The subjects were 300 handicapped children including 45 infantile autism, 39 with autistic developmental disorders and 216 mentally retardates. Eight factors were obtained: Sociality, Attachment, Speech Disorder, Tension, Intelligence ; and also the 101 categories by the theory of quantification 111 involving Rutter's criteria of autism were analyzed. It was showed in sample value that the subjects consisted of three layers in a horn shaped form in three mode graphs: the upper layer was clustered as an autism group, the middle layer was considered as an autistic developmental disorder, and the lower as mental retardation.
The Self-Acceptance Inventory (SAI), consisting of self-understanding, self-appraisal, self-worth, and self-confidence, was administered to junior high school girls (n=89) once a year in 1980, 1981, and 1982 respectively, for the purpose of investigating longitudinal development of self-acceptance. The self-understanding of the subjects tends to increase with the development, while the self-appraisal definitely decreases. The subjects understand their own negative character and appearance, but not positive aspects. They gradually become dissatisfied with themselves. High level of self-worth, however, is maintained: they fundamentally consider themselves to be worth as human beings. From the analysis of coefficients between the aspects of the SAI and its factor analysis, the self-understanding and self-confidence are found to be stable aspects while self-acceptance is gradually differenciated.
The relation between concepts and their properties in semantic memory was investigated in terms of the salience of their properties through priming effects in lexical decision task. In Experiment I, subjects were 16 university students, and the words on fierceness (meek/fierce) were presented as prime, followed by target composed of 3 meek and 3 fierce animal names and 6 nonwords. In Experiment II, for all 16 subjects, the words on speed (slow/fast) were used as prime, and 4 slow and 4 fast animal names and 8 nonwords as target. The priming effects occurred only in Experiment I, i.e., only when the primes were the information of the salient property of instances in animal category. Such priming effects were also observed in Inoue's previous Experiment where the other salient property, the size of animals, was used as prime (Inoue, 1985a). These results suggested that the strength of the direct relatedness between concepts and their properties depended firstly on the salience of the properties in each concept and secondly, it reflected the values of the properties.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of instructions on kindergarten children's memory of sentences of a story. Two experiments were conducted in similar conditions. In each experiment, 64 kindergarteners were assigned to one of the following four groups: general-memory instruction, each-scene-memory instruction, sequence-memory instruction, and no-memory instruction control. The general-memory instruction group was asked to learn the story, the each-scene-memory instruction group was asked to learn each scene of the story, the sequence-memory instruction group was asked to learn the sequence of the story, and the control group was not asked to learn the story. The main findings were as follows. All direct instructions to learn the story facilitated children's memo ry of the story, and instructions to learn specific aspects of the story facilitated children's memory of the specific aspects of the story.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between a child's self -expectation regarding his academic performance and the following variables: academic achievement, subject preference, persistence, and willingness to challenge in a school task. In study 1, a two dimentional (level and confidence of the accuracy) measure of expectation was constructed and validated on 266 fifth and sixth graders. The psychometric properties of the new scale were presented. Level of expectation and confidence for expectancy level were manipulated in study 2, and their impact was assessed by several achievement behaviors. The confidence for expectancy level was found to influence all achievement behaviors, whereas the level of expectation did not significantly affect any achievement behaviors. Thus, the importance of studying confidence for expectancy level as a predictor of academic attainment was suggested. Implications of further extention of expectancy theory to educational behavior were discussed.
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of inserted analogies on the retention of an expository text. Subjects (80 nudergraduates) read analogies inserted texts or non-inserted texts under either summary or memory instruction. After reading, subjects received a recall test. In the analogy condition, the rate of correctly recalled propositions were higher than in the no-analogy conditions, and the rate of recalled macro-propositions were higher than the rate of recalled micro-propositions. But in the no-analogy condition, the rate of recalled macro-propositions and micro-propositions were found equal. In the analogy-summary condition, the rate of racalled macro-propositions was higher than micro-propositions. It was interpreted that insertion of analogies with a text was to help the construction of a macro-structure.