The first purpose of this study was to analyze the development of symbolic play from the standpoint of script, and its second was to relate its symbolic play with mother-child communication and language development. Free play of one third-year girl and her mother was longitudinally observed every first month for one year. The observer visited their home and provided them with a set of play materials, and each session was videotaped for 30 minutes. The results showed that three phases were found in symbolic play of the third-year-old. And that each phase corresponded to the peculiar level of mother-child communication and language development respectively.
Three studies were conducted to examine linkages between cognition and emotion. In the first investigation, subjects were asked to name ten affects that would be experienced when they succeeded or failed in an exam. A factor analysis of the affects revealed a prevalent affect factor, a self-esteem factor, and a specific attribution-dependent affect factor. Next, using these affects, the relation between two components of the attribution process (causal attribution and causal dimension) and affective reactions to success and failure were empirically tested. Study 2 was an experiment requiring subjects to imagine themselves in different achievement situations and to rate affective reactions to success or failure. In study 3, subject were asked to rate affective reactions to performance on an actual examination. Results indicated that causal attribution and causal dimension had both joint and independent effects on affective reactions. Implications for a theoretical model of the relation between attribution processes and affects were discussed.
This report proposed a revised version of self-reporting Self-Disclosure Situations Survey (SDSS) originally developed by Chelune (1976). SDSS provided two total scores: the willingness of self-disclosure and the deviation from normative self-disclosure in a number of situations. Study I examined SDSS's reliability and the structure of disclosure situations by means of factor analysis. Five disclosure situations were identified: personal situations, unfamiliar situations, extraordinary situations, private situations, and family situations. Study II investigated the relation of the two scores with some personality characteristics. It was suggested that the willingness score could be a valid index for discloser's mental health and that the deviation score reflected discloser's public aspects of self-consciousness. Further implications were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the instruction of evaluation (Experiment1) and the expectation of extrinsic rewards (Experiment2) on children's intrinsic motivation.In Exp.1, subjects were divided into evaluative and non-evaluative instruction groups.The former group was instructed to add the outcome to their academic achievement.After doing tasks in both groups, the method of free task choice (Sakurai, 1984a) was conducted.Four kinds of tasks were constructed in two dimensions: difficulty (easy-difficult) and curiosity (old-new). Evaluative instruction group preferred new tasks while the other group had a tendency to prefer difficult tasks.Between the groups, there was significant preference in curiosity of tasks but no significant preference in difficulty. In Exp.2, subjects were divided into expected and non-expected reward groups. The former group was instructed to give the performance-contingent rewards during doing tasks.In the situations of free task choice, both groups preferred difficult tasks, and only expected reward group preferred new ones.Between the groups, there was significant preference in curiosity of tasks but no significant preference in difficulty.Most of these results supported the Self Evaluative Motivation (SEM) Model proposed by Sakurai (1984a).
A previous study (Nakagaki 1987) has shown that the thematic material effects on logical reasoning, caused by illogical problem-solving strategies, were more apparent than real. This effect has been explained by the degeneration theory proposed by the author. The present study was designed to examine possible degeneration effects on the abstract four card problem (FCP), when the card form or the conditional sentence (p→q) was modified. Three types of abstract FCPs were administered to 88 high school students the standard FCP, a FCP containing a card expressing explicitly the negation of the consequent (q), and a FCP having a conditional sentence with a double negative form (p→q). The subjects performed significantly better on the second and third types of aostract FCPs than on the standard one. This result was in accordance with the prediction of the degeneration theory and confirmed the degeneration effects even on abstract FCP. Based on this evidence, it was concluded that the matching bias in abstract FCP (Evans et al. 1973) could be better interpreted from the standpoint of the degeneration theory and that the thematic material effects on realistic FCP and the high performance of some tasks in abstract FCPs, having been thought to be caused respectively by different reasoning strategies, could both be systematically explained by the degeneration theory.
The purpose of this research intended to measure class-teacher's leadership behavior in a junior high school, based on PM leadership theory and to examine its validity by investigating the relationship between leadership types and pupil's morale variables. A proper questionnaire was designed in order to rate the teacher's leadership and pupil's morale. The data from 2498 pupils were used for the analysis. The results were as follows.(1) By factor analysis of leadership items, six factors were found and twenty-four items were selected to measure P and M behavior.(2) By factor analysis of morale items, four factors were found as external criterion variables.(3) Teachers were classified into four types, PM-type, P-type, M-type, pm-type, depending on P and M scores.(4) We assessed the extent to which the morale variables differed among the four leadership types. The results showed the pupil's school morale came highest under PM-type, followed by M-type or P-type, and the lowest under pm-type. This order was consistent with those found in the studies of other private organizations, government offices, and elementary schools.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate developmental progresses on the mental rotation in children. The subjects were 64 second-grade, 65 fourth-grade, and 62 sixth-grade primary-school children, and 44 university students. Four kinds of stimuli, that is, 2, 5, “よ”, “ろ” were used. These stimuli were rotated at an angle of 0°, 60°, 120°, 180°, 240° and 300° and presented to the subjects. They were asked whether the stimulus presented was the same as the non-rotated one. The results showed that there were developmental progresses in the correct responses and the reaction times by grades. Also, the relations between mental rotations and mental abilities showed that the strategies used in this problem were different by grades. Lower grade children were inclined to use spatial abilities while higher grade children were apt to use numerical and verbal abilities.
Japanese has three sets of demonstratives: ko-series (nearer to the speaker), so-series (nearer to the hearer; moderately away from the speaker), α-series (far from the speaker). The theory that the use of so depends on the relative operability of interlocutors was examined. Thirty college students were tested in two conditions: in finger-pointing condition (a control condition), the experimenter asked questions pointing referents, in which subjects answered using demonstratives ; in pointer-pointing condition, the experimenter questioned using a 120 cm long pointer enhancing her operability. First hypothesis was that subjects' use of so would be greatest when the distance from subjects to the referent was relatively long but that from the referent to the experimenter was considered as relatively short. The second one was that subjects' use of so would be higher under the pointer-pointing condition than under the finger-pointing one. The results confirmed these hypotheses.
The purpose of this study is to propose a least-squares method for parameter estimation using Fisher's z-transformation in correlation structure analysis. An advantage of this method in comparison with the unweighted least squares method (ULS) is that the residuals are normally distributed and their variances are homogeneous. A numerical example is given for factor analysis by using the data of Spearman (1904). Through the results of computer simulations in higher-order factor analysis, this method is shown to have less significant errors of parameter estimates than the ULS.
The purpose of this study was to develop ego developmental crisis state scale (ECS) during adolescence and its ego developmental crisis state by means of ECS. In a first study, 302 students from 12 to 23 years of age completed questionnaires on the ego developmental crisis state during adolescence. Their responses were factor analyzed. Consequently, ECS for adolescents, containing 26 items of self examination problems and 24 items of self aware symptoms, was constructed. The reliability of ECS was discussed with respect to alpha coefficients and test-retest correlations. In a second study, 279 students from 12 to 23 years of age were administered with ECS. The main results were as follows. 1) Senior high school students scored higher on self examination problems score and self aware symptoms score than any other groups. 2) It was found that self examination problems score were related to self aware symptoms score. 3) While there were differences between grades on self examination problems score, there were no differences between males and females, or between grades on self aware symptoms score. There were also differences between males and females, and between grades on the score of subscales of the ECS. These results gave some therapeutic suggestions for the psychotherapy of adolescents.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the method of estimating responsive behaviors of profoundly retarded persons. Subjects were 3 profoundly retarded persons (DA 0: 4-1: 5). The stimuli were human faces and red lights. Their responsive behaviors were recorded by VTRs. The three observers judged and marked occurrence of behaviors. About the reliability of observation, a coefficient of interobserver agreement (Kappa) was calculated. Responsive behaviors were examined through calculating the conditional probability of occurrence of behaviors on the condition of presenting a stimulus. Results indicated that a good accordance was found between observers about the time-course of conditional probability of the behavior, when a coefficient of interobserver agreement was more than 0.7 that was siginificantly different from chance agreement (FIG. 2). About characteristics of responses, the time-course of conditional probability indicated the higher responsiveness to stimuli of human faces than red lights in each retarded persons (FIG. 3). From the above mentioned results, we pointed out that the present method might be effective in examining responsive behaviors of profoundly retarded persons.
In achievement motivation research, recent years have witnessed the wide-spread popularity of attributional framework, ali due to Bernard Weiner. His theory, however, has been greatly modified and extended by himself as well as criticized in terms of some methodological difficulties and confusions. Also a need to clarify his framework in comparison with other achievement motivation theories using attributional concepts has been felt. This paper reviews Weiner's theoretical advancement and its related studies; it also stretches the methodological problems concerning the measurement of attribution and the definition of some key concepts, while examining the relationship to Rotter's social learning theory and Seligman's learned helplessness theory. Finally, a couple of future research orientations are proposed.