The relation between 27 factors making six domains of non-normative life events and intellectual abilities (fluid ability, crystallized ability and general ability) was investigated. The participants consisted of 61 men, aged 65 to 75. As a result of the correlational analysis, it was found that 3 factors in non-normative life events were related to fluid ability, 6 factors were related to crystallized ability and 8 factors were related to general ability. Some of them had not yet dealt with any previous studies. On the other hand, as a result of the analysis of multiple regressions, these factors proved to hold important parts in estimating crystallized and general ability. Moreover, considering the internal correlation among each factor, 2 factors (career and reading) were much related to crystallized ability while 3 factors (finding employment and age of marriage, reading and active satisfaction) were much related to general ability.
The present study aimed at investigating the interpersonal relationships between the leaders and followers in senior high school soccer teams. Based on the followers' estimate for the captain's leadership style, all of the teams were divided into four groups (PM. Pm. pM. pm). According to our hypothesis, more of the members belonging to the team of each type were to desire to take the leadership similar to their captain's. As a resalt of our analysis, significant relationships between them were found and the effects of leadership was mediated by the follower's individual personality charachteristics. For example, while the members scoring high on the inferiority scales had more friendly relations with their leader, they were found to be full of complaints. Interestingly, even if the maintenance function of leadership was superior, the members who scored low in their coordinative ability expressed more complaints and rejection of their captains under a strong administrative or inspective management lacking technical guidance. We interpreted such results as a suggestion to their sensitivity to interpersonal relationships.
The following experiments were conducted to explore the process of sentence comprehension by mentally retarded individuals. In EXP. 1 the acting-out technique and NP+NP+V sentences were used. In EXP. 2 the card-choosing technique and NP+NP+V sentences were used. The results indicated that: 1) the semantic strategy was frequently recognized in EXP. 1; 2) most of the subjects pointed to the actor on the card while the subjects chose one of two cards in EXP. 2; 3) subjects who used the word order strategy pointed to the item on the card according to both the semantic rule on the card and word order rule in the sentence. The hypotheses proposed to account for the results are as follows: The semantic strategy was found to be caused by moving the item; the word order strategy was in need of cooperation of attention to either an actor or an object, and attention to the first or second noun.
The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how problem types and children's ability in solving word problems influenced recall performance based on activity during problem presentation. Ninety elementary school children in the sixth grade were assigned one of three activities: memorizing, writing, or solving two types of word problems, respectively. After having achieved each activity, subjects were asked to recall each problem. The results showed that subjects who solved word problems recalled as many sentences about relations among variables as those who memorized them. Moreover, subjects who solved hard word problems incorrectly made more recall errors of sentences about relations than those with correct performance. These results suggest that subjects with correct performance understand integrated semantic structure in solving word problems.
With a dual task consisting of verbalization and hand-arm action, the purposes of the present study were to examine how the child's verbalization (V) and hand-arm action (A) come to synchronize with the adult's V-A. Eighty-nine children from 2 to 6 years of age participated in the Jan-ken movement composed of 2 rhythmic conditions (triple, duple time). Our hypotheses on the emergence and the developmental sequence of the sy nchrony pattern were supported by the main results as follows: (1) 2 and 3 year olds showed pattern (I) in which the child's V-A didn't synchronize with the adult'sV-A,(2) above the 3 year olds dominantly showed pattern (II) synchronizing their own A with the adult's V-A, and (3) pattern (III) was observed especially in 5 to 6 year-old children whose V-A. were integrated to synchronize with the adult's V-A. But when the adult changed his rhythm, about half of the (III) children leveled down to (II). These findings suggested the importance of modification of endogenous rhythm into the exogenous one for an interactional synchrony.
This study aimed at examining what strategy a person would choose in deciding an order of preference for a group. One hundred and thirtyseven undergraduates and 71 fifth graders participated in this experiment. Subjects were shown patterns of individual preferences for three alternatives. The preferences were given by a group of three members. The subject's task was to decide upon an order of preference for the group, based on the preference order patterns. Subjects were also asked to describe how they had decided on such an order of preference for the group. Undergraduates were assigned 3 conditions. In these conditions, expressions concerning the degree of preference by each member of the group, for the three alternatives, were changed. Fifth graders were assigned 2 conditions. It was found that undergraduates changed their strategies according to the degree of preference by each member of the group and to the importance of the issue to be decided. While fifth graders discriminated the difference in importance among the issues to be decided, they did not change their strategies.
Maternal Speech In Mother-Toddler Picture Book Reading Picture book reading provides children with various information about vocabularies and communication styles. The First research question examined here consisted on how mothers help toddlers to acquire vocabularies in picture book reading activity ; the second one was made of what other kinds of acquisition were possible for toddlers. The investigation was made through the analysis of maternal speech to children. Five mother-toddler dyads (1: 06-2: 00) took part in this longitudinal, four-month study. Their interactions including picture book reading were videotaped and five minutes of each observation session were transcribed. The analysis of mothers' strategies of reading labels in the books showed that their strategies did not strictly correspond with children's comprehension level, but that their speech always included labels in some phase of the reading cycle. Mothers gave opportunities to hear again the label of the thing children had misnamed in the preceding cycle. Classifying mothers' speech suggested that in picture book reading mothers gave children various informations about print, category, story, book-handling, moral, and discipline.(170)
Twenty items to be used in assessing the indi vidual differences in the prosocial behavior of high school students were selected through item analysis. The factor analysis of these items indicated that there were five factors: 1) helping other family members, 2) social service and donations, and three other factors concerned with helping friends, 3) behavioral situations, 4) learning situations, and 5) psychological situations. The score of this scale related positively to the score of the benevolence value and negatively to that of the independence value ; the score related positively to the empathy scale, self-consciousness scale, self-monitoring scale and social skill scale. This scale was also validated through peer rating as well as through the data on help in the home. Although no great differences were found between junior and senior high school students, significant differences were seen between male and female students, and between students from different school climates.
The purpose of this study was to as sess whether children's conceptions regarding authority vary as a function of the development of distributive justice. 484 children from 1 to 6 graders were administered 4 interviews to examine this relationship. Their interviews consisted of 4 story-dilemmas (about adult authority, peer authority, and distributive justice). Their responses were analyzed in detail by issue scoring method which classified into one of 6 levels. The results showed that children's authority levels were closely associated with age, and their justice levels. It was suggested that children's developmental status on the sequence of justice levels approximately lead their progress on the authority levels.
The Purpose of this study was to investigate development of anxiety in adult years. The Stale-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered to 1234 men and women from a representative community sample with their ages ranging from 25 to 92 years old. It was found that anxiety declined linearly throughout the adult lifespan. Sex difference was also observed in trait anxiety, with women showing higher anxiety than men. Men's professions had effects on males while did women's education on females. Development of anxiety and differential effects of background factors on anxiety between sexes were discussed with relation to personality development.
This research examined how 3- and 4- year old children understood the movement of covered objects. Children were shown an object hidden in one of two holes on a turn-table, and then were given the following four tasks one by one, which differed on perceptual: information of the objects. Both the cover and the turn-table were rotated on Task A, only the cover was rotated on Task B, as the turn-table only was rotated on Task C, and on Task D the child was moved. On each task children were required to point at the location that they thought the objects had been hidden. Two cue conditions with or without the red and green patches were provided for each task. The colored cues did not have significant effects for all tasks. Pooled percent correctness was 64.6% for Task A, 93.8% for Task B, 33.3% for Task C, 64.6% for Task D. The findings were discussed with references to previous studies together with the perceptual information on the movement of objects.
This study investigated the effect of copying practices in different size on handwriting skills. In Exp. I, 52 preschool children (5-6 years old) randomly divided into three groups were required the following practice using four Chinese characters: (1) large size group: copying the material in the large size (10×10cm) 5 times on consecutive days; (2) normal size group: copying the same material in a normal size (2.5×2.5cm) in the same way; (3) size change group: copying the same material in the large size 5 times on the first day, copying in the middle size (5×5cm) on the second day, copying in the normal size on the third day. In Exp. II, 32 preschool children randomly divided into two groups, served as subjects under the condition (1) with different test sizes, i.e. normal size and large size. The result of the two experiments showed that copying practices changing the size from large to normal were the most effective method of handwriting skill acquisition for handwriting beginners.