The purposes of this study were to investigate the characteristics of segregation by preschoolers and to examine how the visual perception of figure develops. Three groups of preschoolers (4 to 6-year-old) and university students participated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects were required to judge whether a certain part existed inside an overlapping geometric figure. The part with good continuity was easily detected by all age groups. In Experiment 2, subjects were presented a geometric figure, where factor of closure and continuity were incompatible with each other. While some preshoolers attended to factor of closure, their responses had poor consistency across the conditions. In Experiment 3, preschoolers were required to trace a certain figure embedded in a complex figure. 3 age groups were assigned to 2 conditions and their performances were recorded. It was suggested that preschoolers were poor at form analys is, memory, and integration of information. These results indicated that the segregation by preschoolers was less consistent across the conditions while more bound by the qualities of stimulus.
This study investigated the effects of children's lenient personal standards, stringent social standards and performance levels on their self-reward criteria. Subjects were kindergarteners, first-and third-graders. The personal standards were settled through direct experience of the task (D), and the social standards were settled through modeling. There were two model conditions: a peer model (Mc) and an adult model (Ma). Kindergarteners and first-graders in D-Mc condition used self-reward criteria as being more lenient than the social standards and more stringent than the personal standards. This result suggested that kindergarteners' self-reward criteria were affected by the social standards together with the personal standards. It was difficult to explain the self-reward criteria of third graders in terms of their personal and social standards. This result might indicate that third-graders' criteria were affected by some other facters. These results were discussed in terms of “form of achievement standard” (Crandall et al. 1960) and “standard of available performance range”.
The purpose of the present study was t o explore how children make their own rules and share them with other children in their play. Especially, attention was paid on the way they relate the following three aspects: self, others and rules. At the beginning 1st, 2nd and 3rd graders of primary school were paired with a familiar friend of same sex and age. They were then requested to make some rules and play together. The entire process lasting fifteen minutes was videotaped. The results indicated that the higher the grade was, the more aspects (self, others, rules) children would consider in beginning to play. The analysis of their sharing rules suggested that according to age, children would consider both the relation between self and rules and between others and rules.
Two experiments were conducted to ex amine whether preschool children could draw the faces of a cylinder and an occluded roof with visual realism. In Experiment 1,645-and 6-year-old children were instructed to draw one or two faces of a cylinder or a cube just as it looked. All subjects drew one face of a cube correctly, but many 5-year-olds drew one or two faces of a cylinder with intellectual realism. There were effects of verbal instructions and colors. In Experiment 2, the same subjects were instructed to draw the front or sides of two roofs or walls just as they looked. The farther object was separate, partially occuluded, or totally occluded. Many 5-year-olds drew separation correctly, but they also drew vertical separation when presented partial occlusion or total occlusion. Many 6-year-olds could draw with visual realism. There were effects of objects and colors. All subjects reconstructed partial occlusion, which suggested total separation being specific to two dimensional reactions. The subjects who drew partial or total occlusion also drew two faces of a cylinder correctly. They were considered to have metacognition of task demands.
elaboration on incidental memory of Kanji words. In Experiment I, subjects in Obiect rating group were presented each word and were asked to rate how long it had been since their last visual contact with the object named by it, whereas those in Kanji rating were to rate the word itself on temporal-category scale. Free recall performances in both groups showed the recency effect which was an inverse function of temporal category. In Experiment II, subjects were asked to rate the quantity of personal experiences each word reminding them of. Recall performance showed a linear function of quantativecategory. Subjects were instructed to rate the pleasantness (in Experiment III) and the vividness (in Experiment IV) of personal experiences that each word reminded them of Recall performance varied as afunction of pleasantness and vividness rated by subjects. The above results (Experiment II, III and IV) showed that the quantity and the quality of personal experiences determined the effectiveness of autobiographical elaboration.
Lots of previous studies indicate that the performance of high-anxious individuals (compared with low-anxious ones) deteriorates when they tackle the difficult task. Since a test is usually made up of both difficult questions and easy ones, performance may differ according to the arrangement of its questions. The main purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between test performance, the arrangement of test questions, and the degree of test anxiety. The results indicate:(1) Test performance deteriorates in the case of tackling first the more difficult questions.(2) High-anxious students show a deterioration in performance especially in the more troublesome arrangements.(3) There is a negative correlation between the accuracy to grasp the degree of difficulty in solving each of the test questions and the test anxiety (worry & emotionality). These results suggest that it is necessary to take the arrangement of test questions into consideration especially when a test involves very difficult questions in order to keep highanxious students from being placed in an unfavorable situation.
The present study was carried out to investigate the changes occuring while listening to a picture book. Two picture books based on the book “A DUCK AND A FOX” were made. One was constructed from the viewpoint of the duck, and the other from the viewpoint of the fox. The children could talk freely to each other in the test sessions. The main results were as follows.(1) Both the viewpoint of the book and the personality of the characters affected the viewpoint of the children. But children themselves often changed their point of view.(2) Children talked about many episodes concerning the duck while only a few episodes were given concerning the fox. It seemed that the duck was more appealing to the children showing a certain identification and a more sympathetic feeling with the duck than with the fox.
Two issues as to confidence, preference and causal attributions in arithmetic aspect were studied with 153 fourth grade children. The first one was to examine the cognitive variables which directly provide the performance of moderately difficult division tasks assumed to be quite influenced by motivation for arithmetic. The other one was to analyze the relationships between confidence and causal attribution factors, and between preference and causal attribution factors. Results were as follows:(1) Both confidence and preference had significant effects on division performance (2) Ability attribution for success was the most important factor as an informational resource of both confidence and preference. Therefore, as Fukushima (1985) reported, not only confidence but also preference were considered as components of self-efficacy. But further investigations were requested to identify the preference effects on achievement behavior, and to verify the relationship among causal attribution, self-efficacy and achievement behavior.
This study evaluates the relative difficulty in learning to read kanji and hiragana by children. kanji and hiragana are different in the following 2 ways.(1) As for the visual complexity of the character, it is said that kanji is more complex than hiragana.(2) As for the pronunciation, kanji is a word while hiragana is simply a syllable. The result shows that the difficulty in learning characters depends not so much on their visual complexity as on the meaningfulness of their pronunciation. That is, assigning a word to the character, as its pronuciation, facilitates learning to read it. But this does not necessarily imply that children easily induce what the syllable values for each character are when being taught to read characters on a word basis. So it is irrelevant to advocate the effectiveness of the whole word method on the grounds mentioned here.
The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effects of explaining the significance of classifying objects upon learning their features. The text was on the morphology of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. The advance information described the significance of classifying seed plants into monocotyledons and dicotyledons, i. e. the difference found in their ways of adaptation. The main results were as follows: The advance information facilitated deep learning of the text it made the learning more significant. The obtained results were discussed from the viewpoint of science education.
Deci and his colleagues showed that teacher's informative and autonomy-oriented attitudes closely relate to children's intrinsic motivation toward learning. But this process might be also influenced by the motivational orientations of children. The present study examined how socially and task-oriented children perceive their teacher's attitude toward them. 242 sixth graders answered the motivational orientation scale, and were classified into four groups according to relative strength of social and task orientation. Children's perceptions of teacher's attitudes were assessed by a projective measure. The results indicated that socially oriented groups, especially HH group (both orientations being high) perceived teacher as giving more advice and direction, and received more information from teacher. In contrast, LH group (task-orientation being dominant) tended not to receive teacher's directive information. In addition, responses to uninformative categories, namely “simple acceptance” and “criticism” were high in LL group (both orientations being low). The results were discussed in terms of the importance of children's motivational orientations.
The purpose of this study is to propose the three methods for estimating the reliability coefficient under Item Response model. The first method may be used for the item selection, if the latent trait distribution is assumed to be known. The second method gives the upper bound of the reliability coefficient estimate. By the third method, the estimate of reliability coefficient may be calculated from the two following sample statistics only: the sample mean and variance of the estimated values on the latent trait. Some examples using the Scale for Word Meaning Comprehension (Shiba & Noguchi, 1982) are given as application.
The purpose of this study was to make the Sentence Completion Test (SCT) of the ego development for Japanese male and female.The SCT (named “WY-SCT”) and the scoring manual for WY-SCT (named “WY-SCT Manual”) were made based on the theory of Loevinger, J.Samples were 612 Japanese consisted of 333 females and 279 males. Their ages ranged from ten to seventies.The α-coefficient and the interrater agreement with two beginner raters (K, M) were calculated to examine the reliability of WY-SCT. The former was 0.851 and the later was respectively 72.3% (with K) and70.5% (with M).And the tendency of ego developmental changes shown in this study agreed with some of the preceding researches.These results showed that WY-SCT was useful as a scale of ego development.The improvement of WY-SCT Manual and a longitudinal study were required to use WY-SCT more effectively.