The purpose of this study was to grasp the two phases of self(Connected/Separated) and investigate a) some developmental trends and sex differences in adolescence and adulthood; b) the relationships between each phase of self and Self-Esteem. Data w ere collected from 220 high school students. 183 university students and 311 adults including both sexes, and Connected-Self Scale(C-Scale) /Separated-Self Scale(S-Scale) were constructed. Three factors were found out, i. e. (Preference of others' needs)(Social activities)(Empathetic ability) in C-Scale,(Self assertion)(Separation)(Self expression) in S-Scale. An analysis of scores showed that a) Scores of both scales had a tendency to keep increasing from adolescence to adulthood, and that b) some differences between sexes would also exist in such developmental trends, including the relationship between each score. Then, the relationships between C/S-Score and Self-Esteem Score were examined, and it was shown that both scores were positively affected on the level of Self-Esteem ; but it was also believed that the powers and modes of effectiveness wer e seen different among sexes and along the different developmental life stages.
To investigate typicality effects in problem solving, two kinds of reading materials were constructed describing a universal but unfamiliar property of the livestock. The reading material given to the experimental group was to explain such property by referring to a high typicality instance (the pig). For the control group low typicality instance (the silk worm) was used. In the post test up to what extent subjects would adapt the given information in a reading material to solve problems was investigated. The main result was that the experimental group scored higher than the con trol group. The obtained result was discussed from the viewpoint of the mechanism underlying typicality effects.
Effects of abacus training on cerebral functioning was investigated using a timesharing method. Three groups of children (abacus experts, moderates, and beginners), 10 to 11 years old, were asked to perform simultaneously both a key-tapping and a cognitive task. Two types of cognitive tasks were assigned to each child ; one was to recite repeatedly a series of animals' names as fast as possible and the other was to sum a series of two figures in mental calculation. The former stimuli were presented on a VDT of a personal computer and the latter were administered through headphones. Interference effects of each of the tasks upon key-tapping were measured. The results showed that (1) in the mental calculation condition key-tapping tended to be more interfered with the left than the right hand for both the experts and moderates, whereas interference was greater with respect to the right rather than the left hand for the beginners, and (2) in the verbal condition key-tapping was greatly interfered with the right hand for all three groups. These results suggested that abacus training invited the right hemisphere contribution in mental calculation.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of “deficit-complement” schema played in a semantic integration of narrative sequences and the development of the same schema. Eighty-four 4-year-old and 5-year-old children were divided into three homogeneous groups, and assigned to one of three conditions: a non-restricted information with an undetermined deficit, a restricted information, or a non-information. The children were shown an abstract drawing story and were asked to describe each picture and perform a free-recall of the story and comprehension tasks. The results showed that the hypothesis,“the deficit information facilitating semantic integration of narrative sequences” was supported. It also showed that for the 4 year-old, influenced by the perceptual feature of each picture, in order to reconstruct interpretation the restricted infomation was difficult to utilize, while the 5 year-old could utilize the information and construct coherent interpretation. As a result, qualitative differences of cognitive basis for story production between the two age groups were shown.
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the relation between egocentrism in perspective taking task and intellectual realism in children's drawing. The research had three purposes: a re-test of good-view hypothesis by Light (1983), an examination whether children's understanding of reality of object would be affected not only by object setting of “good-view” but also story-telling instruction ; and the third purpose was to explain transparent drawing and perspective task in common, adding another selected photo in a perspective task which could not be a real scene in accordance with any point of view. Experiment 1 was conducted by 48 5-to-6-year-olds and experiments 2 and 3 were made of 63 4-to-6-year-olds. The first and the third hypotheses were supported. Story-telling instruction increased with correct responses, whereas it could not affect any good/poor distinction. It was concluded that egocentrism and intellectual realism were both part of children's expression of the reality of an object.
Three infants were observed for seven months during their preverbal period, and their developmental changes in form of communicative expression in a demanding situation were analyzed. They integrated their behavioral use of demanding an object, looking at a person and simultaneously vocalizing as soon as or shortly after they acquired the ability to the use of “pointing”. In consequence, the observation suggested that acquisition of “pointing” in a preverbal period coincided with the establishment of a developmental basis in intentional operation of multiple sensory modalities.
This study demonstrated how mothers express their emotions to thei r infants and how they evaluated their children's behaviors. One-hundred-forty mothers with 13 months old infants participated in the experiment. The mothers answered four questionnaires, two of which analyzed the relationships between the mothers' style of expressing emotions and their children's behaviors. The mothers were divided into four groups according to the score on factor loadings of their expression styles: expressing both negative and positive emotions (N+P+, N=43), suppressing both negative and positive emotions (N-P-, N=40), expressing negative emotions and suppressing positive emotions (N+P-, N=26) and suppressing negative emotions and expressing positive emotions (N-P+, N=31). Compared with other mothers, N-P+ mothers saw their infants as expressing their emotions more vividly, N+P- mothers considered their infants' emotions more suppressively, N-P- mothers considered their infants to be inclined to restrict their emotions and N+P+ mothers considered their infants to behave more shyly.
In a task of judging addition of weights, a U-shaped growth curve was observed (Piage, 1973 ; Aoki, 1988). Aoki also showed that the performance of them went down in 6 th grade according to judgment and explanation corresponding to criteria. Concerning this curve, Piaget(1973)claimed that this phenomenon was related to the conservation of volume though without empirically proving it. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the U-shaped curve in this task with another corresponding criteria (only judgment criteria), and to clarify the relation between the phenomenon of these weights' tasks and conservation of volume. From second graders to college students, 267 subjects participoted in this experiment with a given problem paper. The results proved that the U-shaped curve could be found again, though sex differences were not observed ; and it was found that the relation between conservation of volume and the weights' tasks was observed. It was also confirmed that the achievement of conservation of volume did not always explain every phenomenon concerning this curve.
A manual of Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) is being tried in the conditions of Japanese University courses. It consists of “Preparation” evaluating the cost of the system, e.g. time, space, labor, money, etc.; “Practice” also describing students', proctors', and teachers' behavior at every stage of the system ; and “Problems” likely to be discussed in practice. As results from the three practical researches of PSI, the manual also recommends (1) keeping “proctors' seats” in the study hall, rather than proctors' rooms ; (2) using some oral readiness test together with a written test by a proctor, and (3) giving several short lectures periodically as a pacemaker for the students' learning.
In problem solving, whether a mental representation on a problem be appropriate is a crucial point. An expert solver in a particular field is shown in making an adequate representation on a confronted problem based on first impression, sometimes with conviction of a solution. Then, in case of general solvers, the way they construct their mental representation is a remaining question. What kind of causes are left if they are judged inappropriate? In study 1, 13 adults were confronted with Duncker's mountain climbing problem. By an analysis of their initial process of problem solving, it was estimated that the subjects passed intuitive judgments on a proper problem and their judgments were related to their mental representation. So, inappropriate representations might be regarded as taking roots from incorrect intuitive judgments. In study 2, 67 other adults were examined to ascertain the existence of such a relation.
The quality of interactions among small group members constitutes a significant factor that brings about positive effects in school learning. And aspects affe cting the quality of the interactions are still more numerous. In this study, we chose one of the important aspects, namely: “the effects of teaching activities”, and examined the reasons why the activities would produce good results in small groups. Two types of instructions were given...A: “You must teach another person after learning yourself”, B: “Your attainment will be evaluated after you have learned”. Two types of activities were directed after a study lasting 25 minutes. a: To teach another person, b: To review the learning tasks. E1 was the condition of and E2: A+b, and C B+b. Ss were 11 2 year-old children, and the tasks used were arithmetic. Results were as follows.(1-) 1 The learning set to teach another person “after one has learned” had positive effects on academic achievement.(2) The activities to teach another person seemed to have a possibility to raise some positive effects.
This study examined the modality and text type effects on story memory and understanding, The materials were made of three different types of text, reorganized from an Europian old tale: declarative, colloquial and introspective versi on. After reading or listening to one of the given texts, 96 subjects were to recall them and rate their memorability, imageability, understandability and the main characters'impressions. The results showed that the presentation modality and text type had little effect on a text recall. However, subjects rated the texts' memorability and understandability higher in auditory condition than in visual condition ; and also the degree of empathy to the heroine was found higher in colloquial or introspective conditions than in declarative condition. These results indicated that the recall and various self-rating measures reflected different aspects of story processing, and the necessity of both types of measures for a research in story understanding were discussed.
In this study, a multi-stratified adaptive questionnaire is made of a scale presented by Takei and Ogino (1983). A questionnaire of 6 strata is constructed and administered to about 160 mothers rearing infants aging from 3 to 24 months old. The construction of a questionnaire of adaptive form becomes possible only with appropriate items to be answered by every examinee, it means that a mother does not have to answer the questions obviously too difficult or too easy compared with her baby's ability. The result shows that accuracy of the questionnaire kept high level in spite of the fact that about 2/3 of the items remained unanswered. In addition, it was found that the relationship of chronological ages and the estimated ability levels might be regarded as linear.