The set theoretic latent trait model proposed in this paper assumes that: 1) subjects and items are represented by sets of discrete abilities, 2) the sets of abilities are partially ordered with respect to their inclusion relations, and 3) the probability of correct responses is defined on the partially ordered structure as a set function of subjects and items. This model is a modified latent class model incorporating order relations among latent classes. At the same time it is a generalization of ordinary item response theory in that subjects are represented in a partially ordered structure rather than a totally ordered structure (dimension). A computer program which estimates parameters of the model and determines set structures was developed, and three simulation studies suggested the viability of the model.
This study examined the hypothesis that expression forms of making request vary, depending on what kind of social roles is evoked in its situation. First, as a preliminary study, 61 college female students were asked through a questionnaire to write down verbal expressions of requests they would use in several situations. The results were classified into five kinds of expressions, i.e., direct request, commitment, speaker's condition, speaker's goal, and hearer's condition. Direct request was most used in the context of “buying something”, speaker's condition in “requesting to repair”, and commitment and speaker's goal in others. From this result, three types of social roles, i.e.,“clerk-customer”,“specialist-client”, and “ituation in which hearer's willingness is needed”, were extracted. In Experiment 1, we found relations between those three types of social roles and direct request, speaker's condition, and commitment and speaker's goal, respectively. In Experiment 2, the same settings were manipulated, and by producing the above three types of social roles, their relationships were confirmed.
The purposes of this study are 1) to make the list of achievement-related affective words in Japanese and 2) to clarify the relationships among causal attributions, affects, and learnig behavior in academic achievement situation. In Study I, a list of affective words was developed that based on 88 affective words (43 for success situation and 45 for failure situation) that were picked out using the free-answer method. In Study II, 105 out of 148 junior high school students who had taken the term examination in mathematics regarded their results as failure. They made causal attributions for their results, and rating affective reactions. Four weeks later, they reported about learnig behevior during the last week. Path analysis revealed that attribution to daily effort was positively related to feeling of regret, and ability attribution was positively related to perceived incompetence. Futhermore, learning behavior was positively related to feeling of regret, and was negatively related to perceived incompetence.
In this study, the taking and shifting point-of-view (POV) was considered as an ability,‘ point-of-view-operating ability’. The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensions that were constituent with the POV-operating ability and the relations between the POV operating ability and the narrative comprehension. Two dimensions of POV operating ability were conducted by factor analysis with 4 th, 5 th and 6 th graders as subjects: i.e. the shift of reader's POV as the movement of POV in questions and th e shift of reader's POV as the movement of the POV in narratives. The movement of character was added to two dimensions of POV-operating ability, and 3 rd and 5 th graders were asked to perform POV and narrative comprehension tasks. The results showed that the hypothesis, subjects having higher POV-operating ability could comprehend narrative better than those with lower's, was supported only among 5 th graders. It also showed that the dimension about POV in questions was difficult to operate for 3 rd but not for 5 th graders ; still, 5 th graders have difficulties to operate the POV in questions in moving character.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of evaluation structure on children's intrinsic motivation and learning. The following three experimental conditions were set up in terms of the mode of feedback given to the pupils: norm-referenced evaluation, criterion-referenced evaluation, and self-evaluation. Each of the three classes of sixth graders was randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions. The learning material was composed of several pages of programmed sheets. The pupils were given feedback based on the result of tests corresponding to the three experimental conditions. The dependent variables consisted of several measures of intrinsic motivation obtained from behavioral indicators and questionnaires. Results indicated that higher intrinsic motivation was revealed in the criterion-referenced evaluation group than in the normreferenced evaluation group. And the results of a questionnaire showed that increasing pressure was experienced in the norm-referenced evaluation group relative to the criterion-referenced evaluation group. Furthermore, ATI effect was observed between intelligence and the three conditions when perceived competence was used as a dependent variable.
Developmental changes in 28 moral instructions as described in the Japanese course of studies were investigated with elementary school children. Significant grade differences and sex differences were shown in Survey 1 based on 495 1-6 grade children's self evaluation data. Higher grade children did not actualize as much as with lower grade children in 24 of the instruction, while girls proved more positive in 21. In Survey 2, based on 55 elementary school teachers' evaluation data, sex differences were significant in all 28 matters, but grade differences were not significant but in 5. With regard to actualization of moral matters, teachers evaluated girls higher than boys, but the children in all six grades were equally evaluated. Four factors (consideration, self-realization, norm of life, concern for society) were found by means of factor analysis in two surveys. On-the basis of these results, it was suggested that these basic factors and their internal basis should be further investigated.
The Bender Gestalt Test by the Kopp itz's method and WISC have been administered to 273 children suffering from brain damages, according to standard procedure during 9 years at the pediatric clinic. The purpose of the present study was mainly to compare the BGT scores of the brain damaged children with those of normal children, matched with age and intelligence. Analysis of the total scores of the BGT through the use of the “t” test indicated that there were no significant diflerences between mean scores of normal and brain damaged children in average mental ability groups except for one age group. But results of the “t” test indicated that a difference between the BGT scores of the two brain damaged groups-one group whose WISC FIQ were from 90 up and the other under 90-significant at the 0.1% level of confidence existed at every age group.
The present study investigated male and female teachers' interactions with boys and girls, and the relationship between these interactions and children's attitudes toward their teachers. 487 fifth graders from 14 classes (7 male teachers and 7 female tea chers) rated the frequency of their teacher's actions upon them. The results were as follows. Female teachers were inclined to have more interactions to children than male te achers. Boys received more rebukes than girls. Teachers gave more interactions to the children of the same sex as their own than to those of the opposite sex. Girls had a mor e positive attitude toward female teachers than toward male teachers. Children who were given positive interactions by their teachers showed a more positive attitude toward their teachers. However, individual differences among teachers were pronounced.
The Suzuki-Binet Test includes “ball and search” problem (No.41, 49): such test was used in this study. In study I and II, the performance of the problem with 37 mentally retarded persons was investigated. 20 subjects drew balls at specified spots looking for the balls. 7 out of the 20 drew themselves in addition. Such subjects were found inferior to the related problems concerning reasoning and understanding. In Study III, the same problem was given to 30 normal third graders. They were asked at the end to recall the given instructions. 2 subjects drew balls and 13 searched only partially the inner circles, while their recalls showed a tendency to lack the instruction: “The ball's position should not be determined.” These results indicated that the solution of the problem required not only executing the plan of search well but also understanding the problem adequately. To consider the search itself, logical requirements should be deduced from the instructions. Mentally rerarded persons were considered to be poor at constructing internal representations adapted to the problem demands.
This study was designed to examine the developmental change of the dividing criteria which children (4-11 years) used in a repeated group-making task with a set of pictureword cards. The result showed that not only the nominal attribute but also other criteria, such as the perceptual attribute and episodic or functional connecting, increased according to their age. That is, the older they were, the more variable view points they would acquire to use many different kinds of criteria in a group-making. Especially, it came to our attention that the perceptual attribute which dominantly appeared at 4 and 5 years showed a remarkable increase when reaching 8 and 9 years old. But each dividing criterion did not develop in a straight line. The development of their utility was intertwined amongst them.
Autistic children sometimes exhibit extraordinary drawing ability in their earl childhood. They are usually thought to be impaired in conceptualizing visual stimuli. We participated in day-care nursery programs of two such autistic children. Their developmental process of drawing devices was compared with that of normal children and their drawing devices were analysed from the figure and the composition of the drawings. The main results were as follows: (1) their developmental process of drawing devices skipped over the stage of intellectual realism and reached a stage of perspective drawing as early as 5 ; (2) they used “intellectual-realism-drawing-devices” only when human-figures were depicted. These results suggested that intellectual realism was an effective term when explaining the specificity of normal children's drawings, and th at the drawing devices of normal children were acquired through the function of conception formed by practical activities.
To understand a problem situation, people remember a similar situation, leading sometimes to a false understanding. In order to correctly recognize what scene the problem is connected with, it is necessary to understand how the relevant “reasoning schema” would explain the problem situation. In experiment 1, junior college students were to read the descriptions of a phenomenon. When given only the explanation on the basic principle, they concentrated on irrelevant parts of the phenomenon. In experiment 2, college students were to read the description of the phenomenon and the basic principle with the information on its similarity in some situation. Their attention was directed to the expected part of the phenomenon. In experiment 3, college students read the description of the phenomenon and the basic principle with different kinds of explanations. When the situation was seen in the concrete model of a “reasoning schema”, many students could correctly understand the problem situation.
A new unidimensional latent trait theory for polytomous data is developed. A unique feature of the theory is that this model explains a psychological process through which a subject reaches a certain response ; this model is an integration of two parts. One part discriminates states of knowledge, namely, it classifies them into three categories, i.e. a) full knowledge, b) partial knowledge, and c) complete ignorance. The other part of the model describes how the subject chooses a certain alternative when the state of knowledge is known. When the subject has full knowledge, he chooses the correct alternative immediately. When he holds only partial knowledge, he chooses an alternative according to the multivariate logistic model. In the case of complete ignorance, he chooses an alternative only randomly. Then a new model was applied to the vocabulary test data of high school students. The results showed a new model produced always better precision than a usual IRT model.