Cheng et al.(1985) proposed that peop le typically reason about realistic situations by using pragmatic reasoning schemas, which are generalized sets of rules defined according to classes of goals. We examined the credibility of such hypothesis through two experiments. Experiment I demonstrated that even subjects, regarded as not having pragmatic reasoning schemas, could solve a reasoning task exemplified by athematic four-card problem and also that, many of the subjects who correctly solved a normal thematic four-card problem failed to solve similar four-card problems. Experiment II demonstrated that the thematic four-card problem in which the task goal was introduced, could be solved just as easily even though no rule defining the task goal was introduced. Based on these results, we concluded that there were no pragmatic reasoning schemas as proposed by Cheng et al. that might solve reasoning tasks ; and we interpreted these results from the viewpoint of the “deformation theory” anteriorly proposed. Finally, the argument that the hypothesis of pragmatic reasoning schemas supporting the idea of ecological rationalism was criticized.
The purposes of the present study were to classify structurally the life-feelings in adolescence, to prove it, and also to classify the trait of each structure.For the first purpose, the method of free description investigating adolescence, was used, and was approached by classifying the results.As a result, two dimensions and four ranges were classified.The second pourpose was approached by preparing life-feeling scale according to the concept of each range.From factors analysis of carried out results to the scale, factors able to explain each range were found.As for the last purpose, an investion was conducted using the life-feeling scale with three adolescent groups from different life-spaces.Whether their feelings were positive or negative was according to various conditions of life-space, feelings and special characteristics of each range.
The purpose of this study was to examine the process of solving a problem that was inconsistent with daily experience. In study 1, experts and beginners were asked to produce the best answer. The result showed that (1) both experts and beginners could answer correctly;(2) when beginners would answer correctly, they examine concrete examples that were similar to a target task; and (3) would also realize the cause of daily events. It was suggested that in order to answer correctly, it was necessary to examine concrete examples and find out the cause of daily events. Study 2 confirmed their effects. Study 3 examined which of them was more effective to answer correctly. The result showed that realizing the cause of daily events was most effective. It was suggested that daily experience was modified in the process of problem-solving. These results suggested that the process of solving a problem that was incongruous with daily experience meant a dynamic interaction of the human inner and external world.
The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental change in ability to understand hierarchical concepts, particularly to classify one object at two different levels simultaneously and to reason on the hierarchical relation between the two concepts. First, fourth and sixth grade children learned the artificial concepts of imaginary animals which were organized at two different levels. Information on the hierarchical relation concerning one group of animals, was given to half of the subjects. After the learning session children were asked about the names of the animals: first grade children could not apply both names of the different levels to one animal even after being given the information; on the other hand, fourth grade children could apply them to one animal. Sixth grade children could apply them to one animal though they were not given any information. The results were interpreted as evidence of a developmental change in children's abilities to understand hierarchical concepts.
The present study examined the effects of different forms of subgoal presentation on problem solving (The Tower of Hanoi problem). Subjects solved the training task with some subgoals. There were two types of training tasks in which the presentation form of subgoals varied as follows: 1) Subjects were presented all subgoals simultaneously, and these subgoals were not removed until the subjects reached the final goals (simultaneous presentation and non removal: Group SP-NR); 2) Subjects were presented subgoals successively, these being removed when subjects reached each subgoal (successive presentation and removal: Group SP-R). Subjects were divided into either of the above mentioned training task conditions. Following the training task, subjects were to solve either of two different test tasks (one was identical with the training task, the other was a varied task) without subgoals presented. The results showed that Group SP-NR solved the test task faster than Group SP-R. The finding suggested that the effects of presenting subgoals depended on the form of presentation of subgoals.
Weiner's attribution-emotion model explains a temporal sequence of attributionaffect-action in which causal ascriptions (controllable dimension) produce affect, and emotions which in turn produce the motor and direction for behavior. This study examined the effect of the relationship between the above mentioned formation and empathy on prosocial behavior. Sixth graders were administered the Empathy Scale questionnaire, and then were to read one of two kinds of stories where controllability was manipulated. The result suggested that a higher level of empathy in children discriminated whether a situational outcome could be attributed to controllability or uncontrollability, feeling and behaving differently depending on this causal attribution. That is, attribution due to uncontrollable factrors generated positive affect and gave rise to help. On the other hand it was found that attribution due to controllable factors maximized negative affect and promoted avoidance behavior.
The generation effect, in which self-generated verbal material is better remembered than material that is merely read, was studied in two groups differing in knowledge of a particular domain (traffic regulations). In two experiments, correct and incorrect sentences of domain-related information were presented and each high-knowledge (HK) and low-knowledge (LK) individuals were either to read these sentences or to generate them. In the read condition, subjects were asked to read each sentence aloud. In the generate condition, they saw a randomly ordered list of the content clauses of each sentence and used these clauses to reconstruct a meaningful sentence. For incidental recognition, the generation effect emerged for HK but not for LK individuals. For both incidental and intentional cued recall, the generation effect was obtained for both HK and LK individuals irrespective of the type of sentence. The results suggested that generation effect was dependent on both the nature of subjects and the measures of memory.
This study was carried out first to reveal the traits of metaphorical explanations(ME)used in lecturing psychological concepts(PC)and second to find the type of ME which might facilitate understanding and retention of PC. In the research, subjects (58 undergraduate students)were required to answer nine items referring to each of the eleven ME. Multiple regressions indicated that understanding of PC was expressed through aptness, impression, and familiarity with ME. Additional clusteranalysis extracted three clusters of ME from two dimensions of impression and aptness. In the experiment based on research results, subjects (166 new junior college students)were classified into 3 groups, being presented with ME in different ways (estimation(EM), production(PM), diagram of metaphor group(DM), the latter two being named “applied metaphor” group(AM))and a control group required to understand and memorize PC. X2 analysis indicated that AM showed a significantly high recall level of PC outline in apt and impressionistic metaphor, DM especially showed an exact recall. The above results were best explained by schema theory.
The effects of empathy and observation of model behavior on helping behavior in preschool age children were examined. 158 mothers of five-year-olds were asked to rate 20 items on their children's empathy. A factor analysis of these items found the following three factors: indifference, sensitivity and consideration. Based on these factor scores of “sensitivity” or “consideration”, children were selected and divided randomly into two model conditions: a helpful model (HM) and a neutral model (NM). The following were the main results. There were no significant differences between high (Hs) and low sensitivity (Ls) groups and no significant modeling effect on helping behavior. On the contrary, the high consideration (Hc) group showed more helping behavior than the lower (Lc) one in the NM condition, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the HM condition. Only the Lc group in the HM condition helped more frequently than the one in the NM condition. Therefore the modeling effect was found only in the low group of “consideration” factor.
The set theoretic latent trait model (STLTM) proposed by Shiina (1990) is applied to Bergan's (1988) math-items data. The MSTLTM, a marginalized version of STLTM, which can be considered as a latent class model in which response probabilities are reparametrized by a set function of subject set structure and item set structure, is proposed. In applying the model, it is argued that: 1) in some situation the MSTLTM and the latent class model are equivalent, but the former utilizes a convenient graphical representation for items and subjects which will be helpful for explorative model construction, and 2) a major advantage of the STLTM lies in that it permits a statistical comparison among models by assuming various developmental paths.
In order to elaborate the mechanism of development of synchrony pattern suggested by Fujita (1989), the following studies using 2 to 6 year-old children examined how his (or her) own verbalization (V) and hand-arm action (A) came to be integrated within him (or her) self while synchronyzing with an adult's (V) and (A). The main results were as follows;(1) in single-(V) task, 2 to 3 year old children could not inhibit (A) and tended to synchronize their (V) and (A) with adult's (V), and in single-(A) task, all children synchronized only (A) with adult's (A)(Ex. 1); (2) the language system showed a more flexible and stable development than the motor-action system in children (Ex. 1, 2); and (3) when they were required to conbine these two systems in a dual task composed of (V) and (A), children's verbalization was negatively affected and became extinct (Ex.3). These results suggested that the phase-like sequence whereby child's language and motor-action systems progressively came to be integrated through the bidirectional synchrony interaction with adult were different from the one suggested in Luria's paradigm.
The purpose of this study was to examine how the salience of mastery and performance goals in actual classroom settings influence specific motivational processes and grading. One hundred fifty-one students were given questionnaires on their perceptions of the classroom goal orientation, concerning the use of effective learning strategies, the attitudes for a task, the causal attributions and opinions on grading. Students who perceived an emphasis on mastery goals in the classroom used more effective strategies, preferred challenging tasks, had more positive attitudes toward the class, and thought their grade useful for them. On the contrary, students who perceived performance goals as salient had more negative attitudes toward the class and grade. The two kinds of orientations also differed in causal attributions.
This is a psychological study of “linguistic interference” between Korean and Japanese found among students attending a korean school. This study examined the degrees of linguistic “independence” and “dependence” between the two languages by “color-naming test”. The results were as follows:(1) Either of the two languages became a predominant language;(2) The degree of linguistic interference between the two languages was not considered high;(3) A relatively stronger influence was given on linguistic interference in bilingualism when the second language began to be learned rather than by the length of its study.
Yoo-on is a small-sized kana character which changes the high front vowel of the preceding syllable to a semivowel and adds a new vowel, for example, [∫i]+[ja] →[∫ja] (Paradis, Hagiwara, and Hildebrandt, 1985). The following study investig ated young children's reading and spelling (with 3×3cm hiragana cards) of 33 yoo-ons. 40 five-year-old or six-year-old children were tested longitudinally in two separate occasions. Though not having been taught the reading nor spelling of yoo-on yet, many children were found to be able to read or spell yoo-on, but seemed to be using different strategies to read or spell the same yoo-on. Error analysis revealed that those able to read more than about 10 yoo-ons correctly began to try reading yoo-ons conventionally, but those able to spell more than about 10 yoo-ons correctly began to invent spellings on the basis of phonological structures of yoo-ons. It was argued that frequency of the use of each yoo-on was not a critical factor in learning to read and spell yoo-ons.