In a preliminary test, 3-, 4-, and 5-year- old children were asked to cut some figures on a piece of paper with scissors. Most of the 3-year-old children couldn't stop cutting right at the corner of the given figures. It was discussed that the cause of their failure might come from a lack of task comprehension rather than a lack of finger manipulation ability. In the first experiment, in order to facilitate the task comprehension, the goal of the task was clearly showed to 3-year-old children ; it was then that they could stop cutting at the proper place. In the second experiment to confirm the effects of facilitating task comprehension, two different condition groups were compared. The group given detailed instructions showed an improvement of motor performance with each successive trial, while the other group receiving constant instruction over the trials, showed little improvement. These results suggested that it was important for motor skill in young children to make clear for themselves the task goal and to activate their conscious self-regulation.
This study first aimed at applying a modified version of Orlofsky's intimacy status measure originally developed with college males to the Japanese college females. Its second purpose was to examine sex differences in the relationship of identity to intimacy status.Preliminary interview was as follows: The translated version of Orlofsky's Interview was administerd to60female university students.As a result, the following modifications were needed.Instead of lucking of codetermination or difficulty seeing partner as a separate person from oneself as a criterion of additional status, the level of personality being affected by a partner was adopted.The results consisted of 16 intimate, 16 merger, 21 preintimate, 4pseudointimate, 3stereotyped, and0isolate.The main interview was as follows: Interviewees of this modified interview and Maicia's Ego Identity Status Interview were administered to32male and 32female university students.Significant sex differences in the distributions of intimacy statuses were found.For each identity area and overall identity, there were significant relationships between intimacy and identity status in males and females. The questions about Erikson's inner space theory were presented.
The present study intended an approach to the attitude change by persuasion from the standpoint of developmental social psychology. More specifically, this study was designed to investigate the effects of the communicator attractiveness (i.e., attractiveness defined in terms of personality, attitudes, and other nonphysical features) and threats to freedom upon the resistance to persuasion. Three factors were involved in this experiment: the teacher attractiveness (attractive or unattractive), the degree of threat (high or low), and the subjects' age/school year (4th, 6th, or 8th grade). A2×2×3 factorial design was used and subjects were assigned to 12 conditions. Results indicated that attractive teachers induced positive responses to persuasion, while unattractive teachers induced the resistance to persuasion (negative emotional responses, aggression intent, negative evaluation of the message contents). The 8th graders displayed greater resistance to persuasion, whereas the 4th graders showed positive responses. A three factor interaction effect indicated that the 8th graders in an unattractive, high threat condition displayed the greatest resistance to persuasion. These findings were discussed in terms of developmental social psychology.
This study examined the role of searching function in constructional activity and the process of getting it. One hundred infants (from three years and four months to six years and eleven months) and 10 adults were asked to construct a human face by arranging 8 parts under blindfold conditions (Experiment I). The result showed that the constructional outcome was related to searching state, though in infants who failed the task, such searching state was found to be inactive or nonsystematic. However in many cases subjects were able to search in a task that searching target was specified by the task itself (Experiment II). So when subjects constructed a human face again, the experimenter gave them verbal instructions asking to search and point out searching target (Experiment III). Through these instructions, their searching became more active and systematic and most of their constructions improved. It was suggested that searching function in constructional activity would be acquired when the inner image as a model of construction was connected with searching plans including such verbal regulating functions as given through instructions.
The aim of the following study was to examine the cognition of the task and the change in cognition of the opponent formed in a competitive situation during a game. The win or loss of a game was considered as the factor influencing the cognition of the task and the opponent. Three conditions, i. e. tying, winning, and losing the game were set. A total of 38 female university and graduate students were selected as subjects. The game was conducted four times and the subjects were asked their evaluation on the task and the opponent in a questionnaire form after completing 1st, 2nd, and 4th games. The main findings were as follows: (1) In the tying condition, task cognition and person cognition were formed more favorably than in the other two conditions.(2) Even in the winning and losing conditions, the negative cognition to the opponent was not seen.(3) Winning and losing a game with a large difference in score might be perceived as the negative information by each of the players, but it was handled in a way having no reflecting on the cognition of unfavorableness for the opponent.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the formation process of two intensive quantity concepts, velocity and thickness, in children. The subjects were 120 elementary school children from fourth to sixth grades, and 42 secondary school children in the first grade. Two kinds of comparison tasks were administered: Which one is faster between two objects? or Which one is thicker between the two? Moreover, three kinds of logical operation tasks were administered. The results showed t hat the concept formation of velocity preceded that of thickness, that in this process there were four stages which progressed as getting older, and also that some errors were caused by some imperfectness of logical operation. Those stages were especially expressed by some typical patterns of strategies, and errors on each stage were represented by some specific strategies.
The purpose of this study was to find the strategy effective to the formation of “Animal Concept” in children: i. e.bushy feet being index for carnivorous animals, tough feet for the hervibores, through the constructive method.In Exp.1, the functional meaning of the animals'feet for their lives was emphasized in focus instances without the rule being stated.In result, the denotative learning was enough, but not connotative.And the functional meaning was expanded to the unlearned form in children, but its effect was found only in the carnivorous types.So, the instructions of Exp.2were improved as follows,(1) the rules were verbalized,(2) the “application exercises” of the rule were applied, and so on.Such improvements were seen effective to the acquisition of the connotation and the denotation of the rule.It was suggested that learning the functional meaning was not likely to contribute to the denotative extension of the rule, and the application exercises could be proved important also for a sufficient acquisition of the rule.
This study examined the developmental process of self-recognition through the infant-other interaction. Detailed diary records about the author's son R and his reactions to strangers, peers and mirror images in the experimental situations were analyzed from his birth to 25 months of age. After 4.5 months, when R was watching his parents, he sometimes looked away, avoiding an eye contact. This seemed to be the budding awareness of others as different from himself. At 9-10 months, he became aware of the fact that he himself had a location in space, showing self-assertion and a beginning to understand others' intentions. From then on, he imitated others' acts and experienced that his intentions were thwarted by others, and then at about 17 months, he began to behave with an awareness of his own intention. This seemed to be the emergence of self as an active agent. It was not until at 24 months, however, that he demonstrated mirror self-recognition, and it was when he began to understand another's point of view.
Two hundred and eleven undergradua te students (female 149, male 62) were administered three tests to investigate relationship between vividness of mental i magery and personality. Those tests were SMI-S (Scale of Mental Imagery-Short fo rm), Y-G (Yatabe-Guilford) Personality Test and MPI (Maudsley Personality Invent ory). Some correlations were obtained among the item scores of SMI-S, the trait scores of Y-G Personality Test and the scale scores of MPI. Investigated by the factor-analysis of the correlations, three factors were extracted and were interpreted a s the factors of “vivid mental imagery and adjusted personality”,“extraversion-introversion” and “adjusted personality”. The high vivid mental images by SMI-S showed higher tr ait scores on General Activity and Social Extraversion of Y-G Personality Test than on those of the low vivid mental images. It was suggested that vivid mental imagery were related with adjusted, un-neurotic and extravert personality.
There are two purposes on this study:(1) To examine the relationship between teacher's leadership behavior and his/her club performance or club member's morale.(2) To examine the influence of situation variables on the leadership effecti veness. Subjects were 313 male and 87 female junior high school teachers. They rated their own leadership, group situation (task characteristics of their club), morale (the rela tion between teacher and students, and the students' attitudes toward practice), and described the records of their club activities during one year. The results were as follows:(1) The relationship between task-oriented leadership behavior (Pbehavior) and club group records were positive. But the relationship between group maintenance (M behavior) behavior and club group records proved negative.(2) Either task-oriented leadership behavior or group maintenance one had close relatio nship with club members' morale.(3) The task characteristics of club had mo derated the relationship between leadership behavior together with club record and club membe rs' morale.
In the present study, the structure of self-consciousness as an index of psychological health in adolescence was examined. At first, items were gathered using data from clinical case studies on adolescents in order to develop a questionnaire apparatus. It consisted of four subscales which were categorized in terms of two axes (toward others-toward self and healthy-unhealthy). The questionnaire was subsequently administered to 537 high school students and 386 undergraduate students. The result of a two-step hierachical principal component method (principal component analysis -oblique promax rotation) showed three primary components at each subscale and two higher components. The two secondary components were named “sense of self -establishment” and “sense of self-diffusion,” and these components were considered as an index of psychological health in adolescence.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of individuals operating computers executing several MS-DOS commands to increase the speed of read ing the related manual. The experimental group was instructed to read, at their own pac e, each sentence of the manual paragraph presented on the screen. After reading each paragraph three times, they were allowed to independently operate the computer. The control group followed the same procedure but did not actually ope rate the computers. The analysis of the reading time, per character, by sentence type-analogy, cause, rule, example, and new term-revealed that the experimental group read each type of sentence faster than the control group. In the experimental g roup, only the speed of reading in the cause- and rule-type sentences was significantly faster at the second and third trials. These results suggested that the practice of operati ng computers could have a substantial effect on the process of reading manuals, particularly as regards accelerating reading speed.
For the purpose of elaborating the developmental mechanism of synchrony pattern suggested by Fujita (1989, 1990), the present study using 4 to 6 year-old children tested the following hypotheses, i. e.(1) the regulatory functions of verbalization (V) for rhythmic organization of a sequence of action (A) through interactional synchrony,(2) the synchronous flexibility of rhythmic pattern in child's V and A. The main results were as follows: (1) children synchronized their own V and A with more facility when asked to synchronize with the adult's V (in EV-task) than with his A (in EA-task); (2) during a constructional sequence of synchrony pattern, there existed integrative process between child's self synchrony and adult-child interactional synchrony ; (3) comparison of the performances in single A-task and EA-task showed that child's V inhibited his (or her) A synchronizing with the adult's A. These findings generally supported our hypotheses and suggested that “Jan-Ken” movement is composed of the integrative system in which adult's V as other-guiding regulator is coordinated with child's verbally mediated rhythmic attuning of self- to interactional synchrony.