The counselors' remark-patterns composed of 16 items for facilitating clients' self-actualization from a metacognitive viewpoint in career counseling were developed, based on the idea that the metacognitive process of self-actualization in career development might be expressed in such a formula as Value ×Expectancy ×Strategy (Adachi, 1988). Their effectiveness was investigated, using the experimental method in which the subjects playing a counselor role manipulated the remark-patterns according to the procedure in the role-playing. The role-playing was administered to 38 male high school teachers and 120 male university students. The main results were as follows.(1) as a whole, it could be said that the remark-patterns had the effect of improving the metacognition both on expectancy of self-actualization and insight of real problems; (2) The items of remark-patterns were found effective. They were thought to be related to both the interaction between ideal self and motivation, and the interaction between strategy and motivation. Based on the above results, intervention methods were discussed.
As it is known, the use of the Item Response Theo ry (IRT) with individuals must rest on a demonstration that the test responses of individuals are in accordance with the testing model hypothesized. However, sometimes it obviously cannot give satisfaction. In such a case, an extention of the model becomes compulsory. Torgerson proposes a general normal ogive model postulating that both an item and a subject are represented by frequency distributions of points on a psychological continuum. That is, different from IRT model in the generalized IRT (we call it GIRT) model, each subject, not only by his level of ability but also by the degree of its dispersion are here described. The present study compares the two models in a case of japanese and foreigners taking a japanese vocabulary test, and substantiates that by introducing person parameters we ought to get satisfying results. It was found that the specific feature of the foreigners were well described by the values of person parameters in the GIRT.
The present study was designed to examine so-called context effect on performance in number conservation tasks. Twenty-two nonconservers.(mean age 4 years 11 months), in standard number conservation tasks received same kind of tasks in three modified conditions. Main findings were as follows. In the first place, even the subjects who failed a one-to-one correspondence task gave conserving responses in a meaningful context. In the second place, many subjects gave conserving responses even in the condition in which the transformation of elements was accompanied with addition of one element and therefore non-conserving responses were in fact correct. In the third place, conserving responses could be induced even in a condition without context, if only a perceptual contrast of elements after transformation would be enough weakened. These results were interpreted as evidences of degeneration theory, proposed by the author, according to which conserving responses in a meaningful context would not mean the facilitation of conservation competence inherent in young children, but induced by evading cognitive perturbations which were essential in standard conservation tasks.
A personal expression indicates a position of the person who tells the story, that is whether he is involved in the story or not. The 1st person: he stands inside of the story and is a teller. The 3rd person: a teller stands outside. In order to make use of the personal expression as a clue to a deeper story comprehension, the purpose of this study is to investigate what kind of knowledge is related with the position of the teller. Subjects (76 university students) are asked to produce a sequel of the beginning of a story which implies that the protagonist suffers adversity. Ss are given two types of the beginnings whose protagonist is written in the lst-or 3rd-person. The major results are as follows: 1) The number of phrases is larger in the lst-person type, but the frequency of the movement is smaller. 2) The lst-person type produces more on mental states, while the 3rd-person type produces more on action. 3) Moreover, the substance of productions differs in the way of solving the problem.
We produced the group version of Stroop and reverse-Stroop color and word test through the use of a matching method. The test consisted of two control tasks, one Stroop task and a reverse-Stroop task. In four experiments we examined the validity and reliability of the test as follows. Experiment 1 showed the significant amount of Stroop interference similar to traditional oral naming method Experiments 2, 3, 4 showed neither order effect of tasks nor practice effect in the Stroop and the reverse-Stroop tasks, together with the high test-retest reliability (r=.695-824), respectively. It is believed that this test might be a valuable tool to the researcher as a measure of individual difference in human information processing.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mother-toddler interaction in a meal time at home. Subjects were 17 one and two year-old-toddlers and their mothers. The interactions during lunch time at home were twice videotaped a week apart. The results were as follows: (1) Mothers picked up more topics not relevant to eating itself as information to children who were older and more able to eat by themselves than the younger and less able children, also to older siblings than younger ones.(2) When children were eating, mothers would talk more about taste and tool and uttered more questions and praises to their children than when children would not be eating.(3) Only when the physiological function of the dining was satisfied, would the mothers spontaneously hold a conversation.(4) When children would not eat, mothers would try to clearly make the distinction between meal time and non-meal time. It was found in own studies that mothers seemed to try to corporate the physiological activity of eating into a culturally determined script of dining.
To assess the effects of focus instances in concept learning, three kinds of reading materials were constructed describing common features of metal. The reading materials given to Cu group and Fe group explained those features by referring to copper and iron respectively which Ss regarded as metals. For Ca group, calcium regarded as non-metal by Ss was employed. The main results were as follows. In the test for classifying various instances into metal and non-metal, Ca group showed better performance than other groups. In a recall test for common features, the marks of Cu group and Fe group were higher than those of the third one. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the differences of information that Ss received from focus instances.
Agreement of diagnosis of psychiatric disorders by psychologists was examined in case vignette and inter-rater designs. In the case vignette design, the agreement of 3 graduate psychology students for the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) diagnosis was high for the most of the RDC diagnostic categories, except for Schizotypal Features. In the inter-rater design, disagreement was only observed among 2 out of 11 psychiatric in-patients. This suggested that an operationalized criteria could enable psychologists to establish diagnosis of psychiatric disorders reliably and therefore communicate and collaborate with psychiatric researchers.
Two experiment examined effects of off-time (OTE) on free recall performance in pictorial and auditory memory in Kindergarten children (three, four and five years of age) and children aged six and seven. In Experiment 1, performance in pictorial memory was superior to the auditory one. The five year-old-children's performance was superior to the four-year-old, while the four-year-old children showed a superior performance to the three year old. There were significant OTEs in both pictorial and auditory memory at the three age levels. There was a significant OTE only in the four-year-old's auditory memory. There were significant serial position effects (SPE) on both pictorial and auditory in all age conditions. In Experiment 2, performance in pictorial memory was superior to the auditory. There were significant OTEs and SPEs in both pictorial and auditory in all age conditions for the six and seven year-old children. Significant effects in pictorial and auditory were seen recently; though significant primary effects were noticed in pictorial memory only.
The present study was designed to examine the effects of differences in the evaluation-subject and the evaluation-standard on intrinsic motivation. The subjects were 64 students. A 2×2 factorial design was used. Two conditions of the evaluation-subject (evaluation by the experimenter and self-evaluation) were crossed with two conditions of the evaluation-standard (norm-referenced and self-referenced). The dependent variables consisted of several measures of intrinsic motivation and anxiety obtained from behavioral indicators and questionnaires. One of the main results revealed that evaluation by the experimenter decreased intrinsic motivation but increased anxiety relative to self-evaluation. Another result also showed that norm-referenced evaluation decreased intrinsic motivation relative to self-referenced evaluation in one of the given behavioral indicators. But there were no significant differences between two conditions of the evaluation-standard on any other measures of intrinsic motivation. These results were discussed mainly in terms of cognitive evaluation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985).
The variables in LISREL are classified by the following three criteria: (1) endogenous or exogenous, (2) observed or latent, (3) structural or error. Generally, LISREL is easier to use than the B & W model (Bentler & Weeks 1980), because the variables in the B & W model are defined from (1) only. But, in LISREL, the observed variables simultaneously affected by the endogenous and the exogenous latent variables can not be treated. So, in this study, a new expression of covariance structure is proposed. The expression explains the variables from the above three points of view, and includes the observed variables that are simultaneously affected by the endogenous and the exogenous latent variables. The practical application with this expression is shown by using standardized data of Japanese ITPA.
This paper developed a personal-computerized adaptive test (CAT) in order to measure verbal ability of students from junior high school to university. In the first half, to create an item pool, six forms of a verbal ability test were adminisitered to 3922 subjects. One hundred and eighty-six items were selected from the six forms through a classical item analysis, and calibrated by the Rasch model. In addition, the difficulty estimates were equated to the metric of existing item pool ; then, the present item pool consisted of 346 items. In the middle stage, BASIC program for the CAT was created, and its practical flaw were revised with the help of opinion of university students and cognitive psychologists. In the second half, first and second experiments using test-retest and split-half techniques, administered the CAT to 80 subjects and demonstrated the high reliability of measurement of the CAT. Furthermore, the third experiment validated the CAT procedure through the administering of the CAT and a fixed-form test to 51 subjects.
This paper deals with students' misconc eption and the process that a new concept displaces it. Many students think that plants growing from bulk (e. g. tulip) have no seed in the flowers. To correct such misconception, the control group was given reading material describing the fact that tulip has seed in the flower and could be raised. The experimental group was given reading material describing the reason why a tulip was raised from a bulk while it had seed in the flower. The main results were as follows.(1) More Ss in the experimental group abandoned their misconception and acquired new concept than Ss in the control group.(2) The experimental group was more deeply interested in the given article than the control group. The obtained results were discussed from the viewpoint of the mechanism that a new concept displaces an old one. And a general description was made concerning the teaching strategy used in this experiment.