Two groups of 1 and 3 year-old nursery school children were observed using ethological method. Children's interactions over objects possessed by one of them were recorded. The data was analysed to find out whether these interactions were organized under rank order like Dominance Hierarchy, or under the principle of respect for occupancy, which make children respect any other possessions. Findings were; 1) Children had established the principle of respect for occupancy as early as 3 years of age, 2) the data couldn't be explained by the concept of rank order or Dominance. It was emphasized that the establishment of the principle didn't mean that children had given up using other's possessions, but that they came to be able to share the object in order to play together.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of details in a story on interestingness and comprehension. Seventh-grade students were assigned to one of 3 groups reading versions of the same plot story, which were manipulated the degree of details and in the part of details: version telling about the plot itself (Ver. P); version telling the details in the plot (Ver. D1); version telling the details independently of the plot (Ver. D2). The degree and quality of interestingness and the relation between interestingness and comprehension were analyzed as follows. 1) The degree of interestingness of Ver. D1 was higher than of the other versions. In particular, the analysis of impression terms showed that Ver. D1 prompted touchingness among many kinds of quality of interestingness. 2) The group of reading Ver. D1 showed more particular comprehension of the character's personality than the other groups. 3) A significant correlation was seen between the degree of interestingness and the particularity of comprehension of the characters.
It is generally recognized that people tends to select more confirmative strategy (seaching for confirming evidences) than falsificative strategy (searching for falsifying evidences) in hypothesis-testing. Such tendency is also assumed to explain the difficulty of the four-card problem (FCP) because hypothesis-testing is explicit in an ordinary FCP problem-type. Therefore problem-type in which hypothesis-testing is implicit will facilitate a selection of falsificative strategy. In a present study two FCP problem-types were set to undergraduates: a proposition-testing type and an example-testing type. The main results were as follows: (1) in the example-testing type, falsificative strategy was selected most; and no confirmative strategy was seen; (2) the problem-types had no effect in the arbitrary propositions (having the arbitrary connection between the antecedent and consequent); and (3) selection of falsificative strategy in the example-testing type was seen essential to its selection in the proposition-testing type. These results suggested that it was premature to deny thematic material effect in FCP, and responses to FCP could be interpreted by the Vygotsky's zone of proximal development.
This study was an attempt to investiga te why and how writers have reflections in writing opinion essays. This article focused on the processes of writers' examining, clarifying, and organizing knowledge in reflection. Previous studies had pointed out the importance of discourse knowledge in reflective writing. This study attempted to show the important role of task situation (i.e. relations between writers and readers, ideas they have, kind of text writers produce, content of the assertion) in reflection. In this experiment, Ss were assigned to one of three treatment groups (one writing with task situation, another writing without such situation but with the instruction to use discourse knowledge, and the control group) to examine effects of task situation and discourse knowledge. The major results were as follows: 1) Task situation activated persuasion schema which played a role as a perspective for writers to examine, to clarify and to organize knowledge in writing. 2) Given the instruction to use discourse knowledge without task situation, writers rarely organized knowledge coherently or held global reflective process.
The purposes of this study were to survey the actual conditions of balance disabilities in persons with mental retardation and to discuss their factors, from two aspects of dynamic balance evaluated by a beam walking test and static balance measured by a one foot balance test. Subjects were 157 persons with mental retardation aged 6 to 50 years. The relations between the performance of each balance and four variables (chronological age, mental age, clinical type and age of walking) were examined. Results were as follows: (1) Though balance abilities of persons with mental retardation were generally lower, two kinds of groups were found out. The first group showed lower performance in static balance while the other consisted of persons with lower ability in dynamic balance.(2) Individual age of walking was found to be closely related to both static and dynamic balance in all clinical groups.(3) Mental age was positively related to static balance without definite relation to dynamic balance. From (2) and (3), disorders of reflex system and behavior regulation were discussed as the factors in balance disabilities of persons with mental retardation.
Children's ability to organize a spatial array independent of the external surroundings was investigated. Five-to-six year-old children were shown two geometrical figures arranged left and right on a sketchbook and, after turning around the table, the children were asked to reproduce them on the other side of the sketchbook. Experiment 1 demonstrated that many children made a mirror-image response (a reversal of left and right). Experiment 2 showed that children reversed left and right much less frequently when the sketchbook was rotated 180° before they turned around the table. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that the left-right relation was often reproduced (1) when the response side of the sketchbook was located far from the presentation side or (2) when the two stimulus figures were removed out of the sketchbook. Results were discussed in the context of the distinction between the practical use and the conceptual use of spatial information.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological stress in school life. Subjects were 119 boys and 120 girls from 4th, 5th and 6th grades of elementary school. The structure of psychological stress was investigated by means of the factor analysis, and four different factors were extracted from 20 given items. Each factor was labeled respectively as follows: Fl: human relation to classmates; F2: presentation in the class; F3: school achievement, and F4: failure in the class. Significant sex differences in children's psychological stress were found: females were seen more responsive than males, whereas there was no difference in grade.
The purpose of this study was to investigate information seeking and causal inference in moral judgement of 6year-old children. The subjects were 59 kindergarten pupils. The original moral judgement task used a pair of stories contrasting intent and consequence in the Piagetian manner. The experimental conditions were as follows: GI: a condition for an absence of intent information about a good intent person; BI: a condition for an absence of intent information about a bad intent p erson; GC: a condition for an absence of consequence information about a good intent person; and BC: a condition for an absence of consequence informaotion about a bad intent person. In each condition, the subjects were asked which person was naughtier, and were also asked to make inferences about the missing information. The main results were as follows: (I) Only 8.5 percent of all subjects sought causal information in the stories; (2) Only 32.2 percent of all subjects made causal inferences about missing information in the stories; and (3) The subjects in the BC condition sought more causal information and made more causal inference than the subjects in any other conditions.
This paper investigated differences in the item selection performance of the following techniques: item-remainder correlation technique, principal component analysis technique, backward eliminating technique using item-remainder correlation, backward eliminating technique using principal component analysis, forward including technique using the ten Berge-Zegers μ2 coefficient as the internal consistency, and forward including technique using the Loevinger's H coefficient as the internal consistency. Using 3000 subject-item response matrices generated by artificial and real item response patterns of an achievement test, the simulation study showed that the forward including techniques were more appropriate to maximize the internal consistency of test than the other techniques, and this was true of several item pools. Practical attention to the forward including techniques and the other techniques were more furtherly discussed.
The purpose of this research was to estimate the difficulty levels of tasks in arithmetic calculations in order to investigate the optimum arrangement of the tasks for teaching. The six forms of tests were constructed so that each form should include items of the calculation tasks for each grade at the elementary school level, and they were administered to 2822 pupils. By means of the two-parameter logistic model, the item parameters were estimated for the 221 items contained in the six forms of tests. The rusults showed that the model was satisfactorily fitted to the data. Furthermore, inappropriateness of conventional order of calculation tasks in teaching was also discussed.
The purposes of the present study were to explore the possibility of typing need for uniqueness proposed by Snyder and Fromkin, and to examine the characteristics of these types. New items measuring need for uniqueness, the Japanese version of the need for uniqueness scale developed by Snyder and Fromkin, and the mental set scale for creativity by Mishima et al. were administered to 224 university students. By means of various statistical analyses, a new reliable and valid scale for measuring need for uniqueness (Uniqueness Scale) was constructed. In accordance with this scale, need for uniqueness was divided into four types: (a) going my way (calm) type; (b) repressed type; (c) self-exhibited type, and (d) self-centered type. Among these types, going my way and self-exhibited types were seen showing higher scores in mental set scale for creativity.
This study was undertaken to examine the role of spatial searching function before and after arrangements of constructional elements and its developmental characteristics in constructional activity. One hundred forty children (from the second half of 3 to 10 years old) and 10 adults were given the task to construct a human face under blindfolded conditions. The movements of their fingers before and after arrangements of constructional elements were recorded by VTR and analyzed. The result showed that the searching function before arrangements contributed to get roughly and partially spatial relationships between elements; and after arrangements it also contributed to correct more extensively detailed spatial relationships between elements. The following developmental characteristics of searching function were suggested: (1) The acquisition of the searching function after arrangements was later than those before arrangements; (2) regardless of age, arranging position of each element was determined on the basis of only a few other parts; (3) in many cases the most suitable parts for determining arranging position were selected immediately before and after arrangements.
Many philosophers have developed a theory of speech acts, which refers to the many functions performed by utterances as part of interpersonal communications. This paper reviews a considerable amount of psychological studies on speech acts, particularly on indirect speech acts where the speaker communicates requests by virtue of asking questions to the addressee. Finally, orientations for future research are proposed, the most important being connected to problems in the experimental paradigm related to an examination of indirect speech acts.