The present study empirically explored the origins of infant's attachment to a “transitional object” (TO)(Winnicott, 1953), such as a blanket and a soft toy, especially through examining the effects of birth-order, birth-spacing, sex, temperament, etc. on the incidence of TOs. Data were collected from 951 mothers of normal children aged 1-6 years. As for two and three siblings, birth-order effects were not significant, but the frequency of TO attachments among the only children without siblings was significantly higher than that of children with siblings. And the occurrence of TO attachments among first-borns showed a significant tendency to coincide with that of later borns. As for two siblings, birth-spacing effects were significant, such that the frequency of TO attachments among second-borns tended to increase with decreasing birth-spacing from first-borns. In addition, children with TOs were significantly lower than children without TOs in threshold of responsiveness as a temperamental characteristic. Theoretical implications of these results were considered in terms of some stress within mother-infant interactions as a determinant of the occurrence of TO attachments.
The present study examined how preschool children integrated the information displayed successively through a slit into a whole reasonable picture. Children aged 3, 4, and 5 years old were asked to name nine kinds of line-drawings while being moved behind a stationary vertical slit. An adequate speed for perceptual integration was measured (Exp. I). The ability to integrate the piece-meal information improved with age and at all ages, the picture was integrated more easily when the slit became wider. Distortion rates in moving figures (circle and diamond) viewed through a slit were measured for 4, 5, 8, and 10 years old children (Exp. II, III). As the velocity of moving figures became slower, the figures were observed more elongated. Age differences were not so clearly shown in distortion rates, but at every speed 10 year-old children always observed circles more elongated than other children.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the examples occurring in daily life upon rule learning. The Ss were junior high school students and undergraduates. The texts contained three short stories, each describing a natural law and its example. Ss were assigned to one of 2 x 2 conditions. One condition concerned the kind of example. Examples occurring in daily life or occurring in a laboratory were chosen to explain the natural laws. The other condition concerned the advance notice of the post-test. Before reading the text, one half of the Ss were given the notice of the post-test while the other half were not. The main results were as follows; Examples in daily life promoted a desirable view on learning a rule, and aroused higher interest in both junior high school children and undergraduates. Advance notice of the post-test did not affect these effects. But examples in daily life did not facilitate problem solving in junior high school children. The obtained results were discussed from the viewpoint of its practice in a classroom surrounding.
The purpose of this study was to clarify (1) people's concept of intelligence in the following six cultures: Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico ; and (2) the difference between the three following Japanese concepts: ‘atamanoyoi’, ‘rikouna’, ‘kashikoi’, which express “intelligent” in Japanese. The results were as follows: 1) Five-factor solution was found to be valid. They were named “sympathy and sociability”,“inter-personal competence”,“ability to comprehend and process knowledge”,“accurate and quick decisi on making”, and “ability to express oneself”; 2) The factor structures of Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan were similar to each other, but dissimilar to those of Canada and Mexico ; 3) The patterns of the correlations among the five factors were rather similar, while the variances of the factors were different between the nations concerned ; 4) The concept of ‘kashikoi’ was different from that of ‘atamanoyoi’ in that ‘kashikoi’ implied sociability together with cognitive ability.
This study examined the response levels of making development patterns and the effect of three strategies of teaching for kindergarden children. In Experiment I, 48 children in kindergarden (mean age 4: 06) were tested on their abilities to construct the development pattern of a cube and to draw the development patterns of a pyramid. In Experiment II, 32 children who participated in Experiment I were divided into the following three training conditions: (a) motor imitation of the process of unfolding the presented solid object ; (b) putting ego-image into the solid object and anticipating the process of unfolding used by children's own body motor image ; and (c) construction of the development pattern used by panels through the picture matching game. The main results were as follows: (1) The effects of training were observed under all conditions ; (2) The analysis of the strategies for making development patterns clearly indicated the differences in effects of teaching among the three conditions.(3) Viewing the efficiencies of the strategies and the stability of responses, it should be concluded the best teaching method is found in condition (b).
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inference of peers' favorite play and the proposal of play among five-year-old children. Variations in children's inference and proposal were examined as a function of their affective condition toward their peers (whether they liked or disliked the peers, or whether they neither liked nor disliked the peers), their sociometric status, and their sex. 37 five-year-olds were asked to choose among sixteen forms of play three that they imagined might be favored by their peers and three others they would like to propose to play with their peers. The following were the main results. First, children tended to imagine the friendly peers would favor the same forms of play as they did, themselves, and would propose to the peers the ones both the peers and they themselves would favor. Se cond, rejected and neglected children did not necessarily propose to their peers the forms of play the peers would have favored. Finally, girls knew more exactly than boys the forms of play the disliked peers or peers of the other sex would favor.
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting the losers' task cognition and the person cognition in a competitive situation. Two factors, the patterns of loss and winners' feedbacks to losers, were examined. The 2 x 2 experimental conditions were set. For the patterns of loss condition, winning a straight victory and winning a losing game were contained, and a positive and a negative feedbacks were contained for winners' feedbacks to losers. The subjects were 44 female university and graduate students participating in the othello game, in pairs. One of the pairs being an experimental assistant, subjects lost two games in all of three games. After each game was over, the manipulation of winners' feedback was done and then subjects were asked their evaluation about the task and the opponent in a questionnaire. The main results were as follows: 1) The pattern of loss affected both the task cognition and the person cognition as a partner of the game. 2) The winner's feedback affected the formation of the cognition for the partner's personal attraction and attitude.
Two surveys were carried out on university students (study 1: 116 males and 120 females ; study 2: 140 males and 105 females) in order to verify 1 ; achievement motive stand concerning relationship between depression and social support ; 2: the two aspects of achievement motive (self-fulfilmentive achievement motive and competitive achievement motive) effects differently on the relationship between depression, and 3: the two factors (‘depression’ and ‘ochikomi’****) in depression. As results, the following findings were obtained: 1. A person with a high self-fulfilmentive achieve - ment motive may experience ‘ochikomi’ in everyday life, but when he / she makes use of social support, the fact that he / she has a high self-fulfilmentive achievement motive acts effectively, showing a significant negative correlation with depression. 2. A person with a high competitive achievement motive has a sivificant positive correlation with ‘ochikomi’ ****, and may depend on social support as a result of ‘ochikomi’****. However, no correlation with depression are seen, and the competitive achievement motive is proved ineffective in the utilization of social support.
The current career guidance in upper secondary schools seemed to have been carried out from the standpoint of stressing students' academic performance. However, to properly decide students' future courses, it is believed important to consider their interests and motivation, which are parts of the students' scholastic aptitude. In the following study we tried to specify the constructs affecting a style in recent career guidance, and to find a more useful way for improvement. 2616 teachers in charge of career guidance in upper secondary schools answered the questionnaire sent to them by mail. The data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis, and the relations between observed variables and latent variables were examined. Beforehand, two models of career guidance were constructed: the first one was a guidance emphasizing students' scholastic aptitude ; and the second one was a guidance mainly stressing academic performance. It was shown that, according to our models, the Goodness of Fit Index resulting from the data was satisfactorily high.
The purpose of the present study is, on the basis of Loevinger's theory, to examine whether delinquent adolescents show lower than the controls in the levels of ego development. One hundred female juvenile delinquents and 180 female high school students were administered the Japanese version of the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WU-SCT). Their responses were rated according to Sasaki's manual (1981) in terms of the Loevinger's levels of ego development. It was found that the delinquents produced more responses of the lower levels than the controls, especially more responses on the Impulsive and Self-Protective levels. On the other hand, the delinquents produced less responses of the Self-Awareness level than the controls. These differences between the two groups were even observed in the analyses in which verbal ability, number of letters making incompleting sentence, and age were controlled. These findings suggests that adolescent delinquency was in some cases a result of a lower ego development.
Three studies were conducted to examine the characteristics of achievement -related affects in Japan. In Study I, 123 achievement-related affective words (57 for success situations and 66 for failure situations) were picked out using the free-answer method. In Study II, the ratings concerning the list of affective words obtained in Study I were factor analyzed. The results revealed 5 affects for success and 7 affects for failure. In Study III, 544 university students were randomly arranged in one of the 16 experimental conditions (8 attributions 2 outcomes) to examine the linkage between attributions and affects. Then an attribution and an outcome information were given within a brief story format, and subjects rated the intensity of the affective reactions using the word lists made in Stydy II. The results showed that 7 affects linked with specific attributions, and these results matching closely with Weiner et al (1978, 1979) and with Nasu (1990).
The development of role taking in a tag game was studied. Three play groups, each with three children, organized in each age class of 3-, 4-, 5-year-olds, were observed over four sessions by the author who participated each game in a day care center. Three aspects of children's behavior were evaluated: (a) “chasing-eluding” behaviors ; (b) role exchange ; and (c) understanding the “sphere of the game”. The results showed that in the younger subject groups, the tagger often chased the eluders only when they began to escape, and the eluders frequently ran away even after the tagger began to chase them. The chaser's chasing behavior and catching behavior often occurred independently. It is believed that the children did not really understand the rules, whereas the older subjects could understand the rules of tag and continue the game by themselves. The acquisition of role taking in pretend play as a developmental prerequisite of understanding of the rule games was discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental relationship between the image operation in three-mountain task and mental rotation task in terms of ability of a point-of-view operating. Subjects were 17 first graders, 18 third graders, 13 fifth graders and 31 university students. Subjects were asked to solve both three-mountain task and mental rotation task. The results showed a different shape of developmental performances in both tasks. In a three-mountain task, first and third graders could not perform satisfactorily, whereas in a mental rotation task, they could make good scores. Moreover, both patterns of errors and RT according to the rotated angles were also proved different between tasks.