In order to examine affirmative and negative processes in the function of the complexity of the cognitive structure, in experiment I college students were presented place names on CRTs and were asked whether they had been to such places. In experiment II tasks identifying place names were added. Affirmative RTs were relatively constant with distant and close places. Negative RTs, however, were fast with distant places where the cognitive structure was hierarchically simple and slow with close places where the cognitive structure was complex. Results confirmed that fast negative responses with distant places were made by stopping further inspection when negative superordinates of the places were retrieved. Negative processes with near by places took time to search in comparison to peripheral places, because studied places had stored no information to negate with them.
This study examined the situated understanding of hierarchical categories among preschool children. 90 four-, five-, and six-year-olds answered five questions which required them to give a basic category name and a superordinate one to the picure of one or two objects of a basic category. In question 1 they were to give the names to one object. In question 2 they were to give the names to two same objects. In question 3 they were to give the names to two different objects. In question 4 they were to give the names to two different objects one of which was in the situation typical of the superordinate category to which the objects belonged. In question 5 they were to give the names to two different objects one of which was placed by the side of another object of the superordinate category. Questions 2 and 3 were often found to be easier than question 1, and questions 4 and 5 were often easier than question 3. The results were interpreted as evidence of the situated understanding of hierarchical categories.
This developmental study examined an acquisition of the concept of fraction. A total of 164 children were administrated six tests over a period of 3 years. Two principal incorrect strategies were found concerning the magnitude of fractions. The first made Rule S, in which children ordered fractions with a larger numerator as a smaller magnitude for problems with the same denominators. Another one made Rule L, in which children ordered the fractions with larger denominators as a greater magnitude for problems with the same numerators. The cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses on these strategies suggested four processes of acquiring the concept of fraction. The first was the process having informal knowledge on fraction before learning the concept formally. The second was one considering the concept of fraction based on children's existing knowledge. The third was a process judging the concept based on an incorrect concept of fraction. The last process consisted on the acquisition of a correct concept. These processes were discussed in terms of interacting process of the existing knowledge with a new concept.
This study aimed at analyzing the effects of succeeding and failing experiences on the solving puzzle tasks of people with physical disabilities, polio, compared with people without such disabilities. Eighteen disabled people with polio and nineteen people without disabilities took part in the experiment. The experiment consisted of pre-session, middle-session, and last-session. The performance and the change of feeling of subjects in each session were analyzed. The results were as follows: (a) Individual performance patterns of pre-session might be divided into 3 types: the success-failure alternated style pattern, initial success experience style pattern, and initial failure experience style pattern. The success-failure alternated style pattern was seen mostly in the high-performence group of people with disabilities.(b) In spite of failing experiences in middle-session, the group of people with disabilities did not lose together their motivation and interest in the task, and their feeling of satisfaction. The group of people without disabilities showed a reduced result. The results suggested that the initial experience was important, and the success-failure alternated experience showed effectiveness for tolerance in a failure experience.
The following study examined the relationship among children's perceiving styles of their competence, the teachers' perceptions of the children's competence, and the children's cognitive performance. One hundred kindergartners were asked to rate their own cognitive and physical competences. Then, they were classified into three groups: 1) uniformly very high self-rating group;2) moderately high self-rating g roup; and 3) more or less negative self-evaluation group. Teachers rated the children on the same variables. The conservation task and perspective-taking task were given to each child in order to measure their cognitive performance. The results indicated that (1) moderately high self-evaluation group received high score from the teacher, with the smallest gap between child's and teachers' rating ; (2) moderately high group also scored highest on the above both cognitive tasks ; (3) many children of uniformly very high self-rating group and negative self evaluation group transferred to moderately high evaluation group when retested six months later. The findings were discussed from the view point of preoperational egocentric nature.
Two experiments were designed to assess the effects of focus instances on learning of scientific concept. In Experiment I, two kinds of reading materials were constructed describing common features of metal. The text given to Cu group explained those features by referring to copper. For Ca group, calcium was used. As a result, Ca group showed better performance in the test for classifying instances into metal and nonmetal while the Cu group showed better performance in the recall-application test for common features. In Experiment II, two kinds of reading materials were constructed describing a universal property of livestock. The text given to Bl group explained that property by referring to swine. For Kl group silkworm was used. As a result, Kl group showed higher score in the test for classifying animals into livestock and non-livestock while the B1 group showed higher score in the recall-application test for a universal property. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the difference of information that Ss received from focus instances. Finally the author proposed a new theory called “heteroformulation theory”.
According to McClelland (1975), the power motive is defined as a “desire for strong action such as to attack, support, advise, or control others, and influence others' emotions, or the interest in winning fame”. In this study, a primary objective was to develop a scale to measure the power motive, and a secondary objective was to examine the positive aspect of power motive. In survey 1, a power motive measurement scale (with 22 items) was drawn up, and its reliability and validity was studied using 300 university students (142 female, 158 male). In survey 2, two hypotheses (1. Even though a person with high power motive shows a different achievement motive will depend on the aspect of power motive he carries ; 2. Even though a person with high power motive does not show a high self-fulfilment achievement motive, without social support he will have a low power motive), were supported by 364 university students (184 female, 180 male).
Ten pairs of undergraduates learned a miniature artificial language (MAL) under the following two different conditions.Under the Active condition, one subject learned the MAL through interactions with a personal computer (NEC PC-9801) that acted as language tutor.The subject listened to sample MAL sentences provided by the computer along with their meaning visually presented on the color CRT. Each MAL sentence the subject produced was processed by the speech recognition unit (NEC SR-150) attached to the computer that parsed the sentence and gave a feedback. Under the Passive condition, the other subject learned the same MAL through only observing the interactions between the Active subject and the computer. Although the Behaviorist learning theories would predict the superior performances of the Active learners, the results showed the opposite.The poor performances of the Active learners were attributed to the speech recognition errors.Two additional experiments with ten pairs of subjects each were also performed confirming the same conclusion.
The present study shows that children's spatial encoding depends on whether an element of the array is located on their near-far axis or on their side. Five to six yearold children were told to reconstruct a display of three objects after turning their bodies around. In Experiment 1 they were presented with a large array, each element of which was close enough to the surroundings. Many of the subjects made a mirror -image response: They reversed left and right while did not reverse the spatial relation on the near-far axis. In Experiment 2, one object of the array was replaced with a small array consisting of two objects arranged left and right. Children reversed the left-right relation of the small array when it was located on their left (or right) side, while they did not reverse the relation when the small array was located on their near -far axis. It was argued that the mechanism of children's use of a different reference frame in making one response needed further research.
A new instrument was designed for measuring social support networks of Japanese university students. First, twelve persons thought to be important support network members for students were identified (for example, father, mother, a close friend, etc.). And then, these twelve members were rated according to twelve s ocial support items. Ninety-six students (males= 42, females = 54) completed the ques tionnaire and a factor analysis was conducted. Four factors were obtained a nd were named as follows pshychological support, instrumental support, problem-solving oriented support and fun / relaxation support. Factor scores of the twelve persons were calculated for each subject and the feature of social support network of each subject was clarified. Through the use of such instrument, social support networks of students could be idiographically understood.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the awareness of phonemes relates to the learning of reading and spelling of Yoo-on (Yoo-on is a small-sized kana character which changes the high front vowel of the preceding syllable to a semivowel and adds a new vowel, for example, [ki] + [ja]→[kja]). Sixty children aged five to six were given phonemic awareness tests, reading and spelling tests, and the Shiba Picture Vocabulary Test. Two types of phonemic awareness tests were given based on the detection of either the first consonant or the end vowel. The performance levels of both of them proved quite high. Performances in the phonemic awareness tests were found to be related to performances in the Yoo-on reading and spelling tests.
The purposes of the present paper were to examine the relations of narcissistic personality to Ss' present recollections concerning their parents' earlier attitudes and home environment. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) revised by Miyashita and Kamiji (1985), and three other questionnaires measuring mother's and father's attitudes together with the home environment were administered to 270 college students. Correlations were performed between NPI scores and the other three measures. The results showed that in case of females, a significant negative correlation was found between narcissism and the emotional acceptance of the mother: such result supported the theory of narcissism. In the case of male subjects a significant positive correlation was found between narcissism and the father's dominating attitude. With such a result, it was suggested that the father could not be neglected in the theory of narcissism.
The purpose of this study was to examine what kind of design was optimal for the presentation of action-sequences in a user's manual of word-processor software. Nine types of designs were constructed, manipulating the presence or absence of a lead, an example, results of the operations and pictures of the screen. The position of the pictures was also a variable. Thirty novice-users and twentythree technicalwriters evaluated each type of design using the semantic differential (SD) method and paired -comparisons. Results were as follows: (a) The most optimal design contained a lead, an example, results of the operations and pictures of the screen ; (b) The presentation of results of the operations showed the most important for the optimization ; (c) A few discrepancies between the evaluation of novice-users and that of technical-writers were noticed.
In recent years, social sciences are beginning to draw upon a new generation of multivariate analysis methods. In this paper, covariance structure analysis which is one of these methods, is discussed as a general method for many other multivariate analysis methods using the covariance structure expression by Toyoda (1990). The advantage of this method is that a priori knowledge (for instance, theoretical prediction, research design and empirical findings) can be incorporated into empirical analysis. Some worthy applications in education and psychology are introduced.