1. Purpose This study has two main objectives: The first is to provide some clinical data to justify Dr. Wechsler's idea of general intelligence-the behavior theory-and to prove Dr. Alexander's idea of X and Z factors-the temperamental and personality factors theory. The second objective is to provide my own idea -the life history theory. 2. Method After I finished the Japanese standardization of WISC in 1953, I started clinical case study of children and analyzed more than a thousand cases. 3. Results What I have found is as follows: By measuring children's intelligence with WISC, we not only can find personality factors, but also can diagnose children's life histories-how children are brought up and what their parents' attitudes are like, and so on. I have listed ten illustrative cases showing brief case histories and Verbal I. Q., Performance I. Q., Total I. Q., and Scaled-Score profiles.
Conventionally, the critical period of sexualdevelopment has been considered to be 13 years through 16 years of age. The period has been determined from the standpoint of physical changes. However, sexual development of an human individual has to be considered at two phases-physical and psychological. Purpose of this study is to establish the critical period-ages of transition to maturity ofpsychosexual development. For this purpose, the following problems may first bediscussed. 1. How is it possible to measure the developmentof psychosexual functions? 2. How is it possible to establish so-called critical period of psychosexual development? 3. Does this peoiod coincide with physical one? 1. In our investigation, several sex stimuli-such as words, sentences, anatomic figure of female sexorgans, and photograph of love scene-were given to the subjects, and their reactions were measured by G. S. R.(galvanic skin response) and breathing variation. Thirty-two pupils from 6th to 9th grades were chosen as subjects. Though the subjects were too young for this sort of study, the breathing variation in response to such sex stimuli as words and photograph seemed to provide desirable data for the purpose of this study. 2. According to the results of our experiments, it seems possidle to set thecritical period at the ages 11 through 13. 3. Generally speaking, the remarkable changes of physical functions seem to occur between 13 and 16 years of age. Though some changes in functions occur earlier or later than this period, it is possible to point out that critical period of sex stimuli response as a result of psychosexual development does not coincide with that of physical one, the former coming a little earlier than the latter.
This paper aims to treat the problems of adaptation to society, especially to the primary school groups-which is the first place where one has to adapt oneself-and to find the cause of considerable differences in adaptation among primary schoolchildren. We carried out sociometrical paper test for 270 children of the fourth year grade of one primary school. The degree with which one belongs to a group, that is to say, social status, was determined by T. B. Lemann and R. L. Solomon's method. As there are some doubts as to the adequacy of this sociometrical test, we examined its results and found this to be quite efficient. Difference in children's family conditions is one cause difference in their ways of adaptation. In our study these relationship were discussed. The family conditions considered in this study are as follows: (1) Family occupatioin (2) Parents' educational background (3) Number of family members (4) Number of brothers and sisters (5) Birth order Relationships between the above-mentioned five factors and the children's social status were analyzed. As a result we can point out that there exist relationships between the following: 1. Social status and family occupation or parents' educational background (abstention ratio below 5%). 2. Social status and the number of brothers and sisters (abstention ratio blew 10%) There is no relationship between social status and family members or birth order. The conclusions are: 1. The higher the family occupation and parents' educational background, the higher the children's social status. 2. Children with two brothers and sisters are most fit for group adaptation. 3. Lower social status is related to having more than three brothers and sisters. 4. Children with one brother or sister or without any have difficulties in coming up to the highest social status.
This study was conducted for purpose of finding out the relations of reward-punishment and learning especially from the standpoint of diagnostics for intro-extro version. The version consists of five independent traits, namely: social, thinking, depression (inferiority complex), rhathymia and cycloid tendencies. In this particular experiment, three traits were used: social, depression and rhathymia. Procedure: This experiment was carried out with the pupils of Hayama Public Junior School in Kanagawa Prefecture. First the pupils (N-657) were asked to answer the intro-extro version question-naire. Based on the results of the test three groups were selected introversion (N-79), extroversion (N-75), each including three traits, and normal (N-47). Then these pupils were instructed to work at a simple addition test as fast and accurately as possible for six days 10 minutes each. On the fourth day, on one group the names of the pupils were publicly shown at the school, and the pupils were praised for their performance. The members of the second group were not only reproved but also were publicly shown at the school for their inferior performance. The third group worked without any particular incentive as a control group. Of course, these three groups were formed at random, and they received praise and reprimand irrespective of their actual achievements. On the fifth day the experiment was carried out in the same manner. On the sixth day the first group was told that their members had good characters. The second group was told that their members had undesirable characters, and their names were given public notice. Results: The amount of performance for each group was recorded and was compared with that of the other groups. Findings from the results are asfollows: In introversion: In both social and rhathmyia introversion, the control groups show the most satisfactory improvement; the praised groups show improvement; and the reprimanded groups do not show even their original achievement and turn to worse. In depiession type, the praised group shows the most satisfactory improvement; next comes the control group, while the reprimanded group receded.(Tables 2-4, 6-8 and Fig. 1, 2). In extroversion: In rhathymia extroversion, the reprimanded group shows an improvement; next comes the praised group, and last the control group. In social extroversion and depression extnroversion, both the praised groups and the reproved groups show an improvement. Taken all together, in introversion the most effective incentive is to be praised, the worst is to be reproved. In extroversion, the praised group, the reproved and the control group all show improvement and there is hardly any difference between the three groups. Generally speaking, the introversion groups show more improvement than extroversion groups with or without incentive, When reproved, the introversion groups show worse performance as compared to the extroversion groups.