Part I This experiment has been done to compare the respective rigidity of personality of deaf and normal groups, each containing 13 children, average 11 years old. To measure rigidity, the degree of co-satiation was calculated. Subjects were told to draw a simple figure as cat (tortoise, rabbit) repeatedly till they became surfeited and gave up drawing it. Then they were told to draw the next figure till they become surfeited with it. This procedure was repeated. Each drawing time was measured. The degree of cosatiation of each subject was calculated on the next fomula:_??_ T1 (2, 3) =time of drawing the first (second, third) figure. If T2 is equal to T1, the value becomes 0, showing that the satiation of the first activity has not influenced the second activity at all, and that the boundary between two psychical regions corresponding to two activities is very rigid. If T2 (T3) is 0, the value becomes 100, showing that co-satiation was 100%, and that the boundary between two regions is very weak. The result showed that the degree of co-satiation was 9.56 in deaf group and 34.69 in normal group, the difference being significant at 0.5 level. These figures show clearly that the deaf are more rigid in personality than the normal. Part II It is said that the deaf see more keenly than the normal because they cannot hear. This experiment has been done to compare the respective degree of Muller-Lyer's illusion between deaf and normal groups. Fourty deaf children and 49 normal children were used. The result showed no significant difference between them. But the time required was very much shorter, and variability of the degree of illusion in each test was very much larger, in deaf group than in normal group. This fact seems to indicate that the behavior of the deaf is more crude than that of the normal children.
1) Characteristics of Child Mentality and Religion: From the view-point of the contemporary developmental psychology, it is reasonable to regard the religious mentality in children as a product of their development. One of the best achievements which show the reltionship between religion and the characteristic of child mentality was made by J. Piaget. He thought that the characteristics of child mentality could be explained by the word “Egocentricism,” and that the world conception of children could be said “Animism,” “Realism” and “Artificialism.” This idea of his gives an influential suggestion on the origin of religion. In the child mentality, there exist religious elements as such. 2) Magic and Divination in the World of Children: Children live in the world of fairy tales, in which there are many magical elements. Children enjoy these since they do not possess the causality as grown-up people. They accept the magics divinations which are fitted to their community, while they create their own magics and divinations. 3) Religious Sentiments: What makes a behaviour religious is “la notion de sacre” as E. Durkheim said, or “Das Heilige” using the words of R. Otto. This is almost equal to the meaning of English “awe,” which, however, means strictly the complex of various emotions: that is Wonder, Selfsubjection and Fear, according to W. McDougall's papers. Therefore, until such emotions appear in child mentality, the true religious feeling does not come out. 4) Child Mental Attitude to the Established Religions Though many studies were done on this subject, here is a graduation thesis “The Development of Religious Consciousness in School Children” by M. Horie of Kobe University, who questioned about such established religious conceptions as God, Spirit, Haven and Hell and so on. And the children between young childhood and school-childhood have general tendency of accepting easily what they are told because they are too ready to imitate and believe. 5) The Process of Acquiring Religious Ideas in Children: As to the subject, J. B. Pratt thinks that (1) the indirect influence of the actions of older persons.(2) direct teaching on religious subjects.(3) the natural development of the child's mind are the working factors. Children acquire the religious ideas as they are taught, due to their imitative and repetitions qualities and suggestibility. But from about the end of school-childhood to the puberty their interests in the external side of religion become less. But in the latter period of adolescence when they contemplate the problems of life, they begin to turn their thoughts to religion, and “Conversion” often comes about at this step of life.
Dissatisfied with the basic concepts in the definition of vocational guidance, which NVGA approved and adopted in 1937, Donald E. Super studied that problem for more than fifteen years. We find the results of his research in his books and papers, in which the development of his concepts in vocational guidance can be followed. Inquiring into the problem “What is vocational guidance?”, Super thought of several new concepts, such as vocational adjustment, self-concept, personal counseling, career pattern, vocational development, and vocational maturity. Among them, his main concepts are vocational adjustment and vocational development which seem to make two important supports in his whole idea. Of the two, the concept of adjustment was studied first, whereas that of development was put on later. My comments on Super's concepts in vocational guidance and their development are as follows: (1) We should appreciate Super's laborious inquiry into the preceding concepts in vocational guidance and his great effort in the amendment and the development of them. (2) But I have two questions at present. First, Super redefined vocational guidance as the process of helping a person form, and develop his self-concept. But is it not difficult for vocational guidance in anysituation to actually render such assistance for development? For example, while it is possible in school, is it not very difficult in the employment office? Second, though the career patter n study is to be followed continually for a long time after graduation, how much does it contribute to those who are still in school? Is it not more important to catch the transition of the dimensions while' they are attendng school and to observe the patterns of such transition? (3) There has been no remarkable response on the side of the scholars in the United States of America to Super's theories, which, on the contrary, have called forth some noticeable echoes among Japanese scholars. Super's redefinition has often been quoted by the researchers and a new definition is proposed after Super's main concepts. (4) We have much interest in Super's emphasis in the necessity to promote the study of the developmental psychology. After the discussion in the section of vocational guidance at the convention of the Japan Psychological Association held last July, it was resolved that we should carry on the study in vocational development of the adolesent in cooperation with each other.