In recent studies, P. Stocks, M. N. Karm (r=0.84), H. H. Newman, N. F. Freeman, K. G. Holzinger (r=0.88) and K. Otaira (r=0.902) report that there is a high correlation between identical twins. By means of the WISC full test in measuring their intelligence, the author has found that the correlation between 80 pairs shows 0.87. Let us consider, then, what will happen in the study of WISC sub-tests, that is Information Comprehension, Arithmetic, Similarities, Vocabulary, Picture completion, Picture arrangement, Block design, Object assembly, Digit symbol, Verbal I. Q. and Performance I. Q. on identical twin's intelligence. The author tested 80 pairs, 6-12 years of age consisting of 42 male pairs and 38 female ones living in the same families. The Comprehension, Picture completion and Object assembly were all statistically significant, but no significant difference was found in each sub-test of Vocabulary, Arithmetic, Information, Block design. That is, on even identical twins living in the same families, the datk indicate that Comprehension, Picture completion and Object assembly are especially affected by a variety of emotional, environmental and other conditions.
Several studies on the children's time sense were made only by examining their understanding or knowledge or the usual and conventional time words. This paper was designed to clarify the children's “feeling of past-time-distance” and consisted of three view points. They were as follows; (1) measurement of their degrees of accuracy in putting historical events in time order,(2) measurement of their “feelings of past-time-distance” not involving the expression of the number, and (3) measurement of the degrees of numerical accuracy in their sense from the present to historlcaievents. Subjects were primary school children from the 2 nd grade to the 6 th grade, 1024 in all. In consideration to avoid the influence of learning in school education, nine historical events which seem to be more familiar with children were selected as the stimulus-problems. By examining the results of the above procedures we have concluded as follows; 1) Children's accuracy to put historical events in order shows a slight development at the 3 rd grade and shows an almost complete development at the 5 th grade. 2) According to the measurement of “feeling of past-time-distance”, the events nearer to the present, in general, are felt by children to be farther than in real time scheme. At the lower grades there is no realization of difference between the present events and ancient events which children are retaining. But the realization of difference comes to develope at higher grades. 3) Children's accuracy of time sense from the present to historical events has shown somewhat sharp development at the 4th grade, but we could not be confident about it because there were greater deviations. Rather, it: should be noted that there were many children who could not answer the question correctly. 4) “Feeling of past-time-distance” consists neither with the objective time scheme, nor with children's time sense, expressed numerically. 5) Although children know their grades, ages, and dates of birth, there are a fair number of pupils who could not answer sufficiently the questions that were asked them, e. g.,‘how many years ago did you enter this school?’ or ‘how many years ago were you born?’
The purpose of the study in this paper is to clarify (1) the developmental degree of achievement of school children in isolated villages, where environmental conditions for achievement are not favorable,(2) the achievement-changes with age-development, and (3) the difference of achievement between school children in isolated villages and the children in cities, where their environmental conditions for achievement are in advantageous position. The school children in isolated villages were examined in Japanese, mathematics, science and social studies by standardized achievement tests and also the school children in cities were examined in the same courses by the same tests in order to compare the findings. As a result of these findings, the over-all achievement deviation score and the standard deviation of each course of study was calculated. The results obtained are as follows: The achievement deviation score of school children in isolated villages is far lower than the national average of achievement deviation score. On the other hand the score of school children in cities is higher than that of the national average. The score of achievement test of Japanese of school children in isolated villages is the lowest, and indicates wide difference as they advance to the upper grades. The achievement of mathematics of school children in isolated villages is also lower in all the grades, especially in the first and second grades. The achievement of science and social studies of school children in isolated villages is lower in all. the grades, especially in the case of the boys. From the fifth and sixth grades to the middle school it also becomes lower. Comparing the achievement of school children in isolated villages with those in cities, the achievement of school children of the former is 79.70 per cent of the learning capacity of school children in cities. But the achievement score of Japanese shows the lowest, and the degree of its difference becomes greater as they advance to the upper grades, especially in the case of the boys. In the achievement of mathematics, the results are low in all the grades, especially in the first and second grades. In the achievement of science, it is also low, but especially in the case of the boys. In the achievement of social studies, it becomes lower as they advance to the upper grades, especially in the case of the boys. The achievement scores of school children in isolated villages differ much from that of school children in cities. As for the difference, result of this study was expressed not only by the equation Y=aX+b but also by Y=aX+b plus the number of variations, consequently we scrutinized the regulavity of their periodicityand width.
Purpose: Study on the development of children's thinking on causal relations of natural phenomena is necessary-at least to respond to the demands made by scientific education theories. As a first step of experimental study on the subject in qeustion, we tried to find out how children understand causal relationships of demonstrable natural phenomena. Method: We made eight problems including eleven demonstrable questions in the field of physics and chemistry. To get exact answer, we interviewed the subjects individually and gave questions orally. Subjects: Ten boys and 10 girls each from the 3rd grade of Kakogawa Elementary School, and the 1st grade and 2nd grade of Kakogawa Junior High School. Total 120 pupils. Arrangements of Result: Children's explanations were classified into five categories. The five categories were given grade points based upon their logical perfectness and age distribution. Then the developmental curve was observed. Sex differences were also observed. Conclusion: (1) When children's level of understanding of causal relationship was low, the explanation were illogical and were based upon inpressions of things used in demonstration or fragmental phenmena. However, as their level of understanding went higher, the logical explanations became possible. Because the modes of explanation were different among children of the same grade, depending on the questions, we cannot conclude that a certain from of explanation corresponds to a certain grade. (2) Sudden decrease of illogical explanations and increase in logical ones was found between the 5th grade of the elementary school and the 1st grade of the junior high school. Change in the quality of thinking from understanding of material causal relationship to that of abstract causal relationship takes place during this period. (3) Generally speaking, girls are inferior to boys, especially at the 3rd grade-when understanding of material relationships is complete among boys and at the 1st grade of junior high school-when understanding of abstract relationships begins to be complete.
I Purpose: As related to the problem,“what are the needs which a child tries to satisfy when he talks?”, J. Piaget studied the problem,“when children talk together, do they understand one another?” at La Maison des Petits de L'Institut J. -J. Rousseau at Geneva 1921-22. This problem is very important for us, beyond the difference between French and Japanese, because the modern trend of Japanese education stresses the importance of conversation among children. To find out children's mentality, we want to follow up Piaget's experiment faithfully, without reference to differences of languages. II Method of Experiment: 1. As materials of experiment we used two stories (pure language materials) and two descriptions of machine with visual aids. 2. Subjects; 20 pupils in 1st grade, 20 pupils in 2nd grade, 6 pupils in 3rd grade. Oike Elementary School, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka, 3. Equipment: A Taperecorder 4. Procedures of experiment: First of all, the experimenter gives pupil A (explainer) a brief story or a description of machine. pupil A (explainer) gives pupil B (reproducer) the same content. The experimenter records it with the taperecorder. He then makes pupil B to reproduce what he listens; the experimenter records it in the same way. The experimenter asks pupil A to explain what he has omitted. As a result, we find out the extent of children's understanding by measuring the following four points. a) How much the reproducer understood in relation to what the explainer had understood. d) How much the reproducer understood in relation to what the explainer had expressed. c) How much the explainer understood in relation to what the experimenter expressed. b) How much the explainer has expressed in relation to what he had understood. III Results: 1. We got almost same numerical results as Piaget's. 2. In terms of obscure and elliptical expression, lack of precision in the usage of pronoun, lack of order in stories, and juxtaposition of causalities of Piaget's theory of egocentrism, differences between a 6-7 years old child and a 7-8 years old child were also noticeable in this experiment. 3. But we could not find Jack of “effort to be objective” which Piaget observed in his results. 4. We can say that some differences exist between a 6-7 years old child and a 7-8 years old child. However, we can neither support nor deny Piaget's theory that the beginning of verbal understanding between children can be placed at approximately seven or eight years of age.