This study examined the differences in perception among adolescents, adults and teachers towards school refusals. A questionnaire was administered to 510 adolescents, 291 adults and 152 teachers. The results were as follows: (1) The results commonly showed a rather low sympathetic and a relatively high estimative attitude towards school refusals, although teachers showed more sympathetic and less estimative than others; (2) Teachers explained the main cause of school refusals in terms of a developmental trouble in the reorganization of personality, while adolescents and adults explained them in terms of a defensive reaction of pupils against school administration and an individual pathology resulting from a poor family environment, respectively; and (3) More frequent contacts with school refusals led to an increase in sympathetic attitude towards them and a decrease in the estimative one for adolescents and adults, together with an increase in their explanation concerning the developmental perspective for adolescents. However, these tendencies did not show at all among teachers while very little in adolescents and adults. Therefore, the importance of mediative variables such as receiving a support was considered.
This experiment was conducted in order to search how holding an irrational belief as a role affected anxiety and predictions according to the degrees of attributive irrational beliefs. Fifty-three Japanese college students had their degrees of attributive irrational beliefs surveyed beforehand and were asked to imagine themselves in neutral, strained and relaxed situations. In a strained situation they were further asked to imagine (a) that they were adhering to an irrational or a rational belief; and (b) that they were sufficiently or not sufficiently prepared for the situation. While in their assignments, subjects were asked to report their state of anxiety and to make predictions of the results. Subjects whose degrees of attributive irrational beliefs were high, reported that holding an irrational belief as a role elicited higher anxiety than holding a rational belief when they lacked preparation. On the other hand, subjects whose degrees of attributive irrational beliefs were low, reported the same result, irrespective of the preparedness. Further implications of these finding were discussed.
Whereas Piaget established conservation task to asess children's understanding of extensive quantity, this study aimed at establishing another kind of conservation task to asess children's understanding of intensive quantity, e.g. the concept of density. The following study examined children's misconception of density by using our conservation task. Subjects were sixth graders. A typical question was asked in the conservation task: Which density is greater, a big or a small aluminium lump? Although subjects were taught in advance that density of substance was given by its weight per unit volume (1 cm3), commonly explained in school education, half of the subjects failed to answer the question. They answered that the density was greater for the big lump, suggesting they did not understand the concept of density by a commonly given definition. Results were discussed from the viewpoint of the formation process of intensive quantity concept. A teaching method to lead children to a better understanding of the nature of intensive quantity was proposed.
In this research, a new scaling procedure was developed in order to measure personality traits (θ) to create Movement responses of organic objects (M or FM in the Rorschach test) in the Inkblot test. This procedure was based on the item response theory. In this procedure the homogeneity of the items of the used test were checked. Here, 60 items including the Rorschach test and other items from Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) were used and 402 subjects were asked to create one response for each item. Then, 40 homogenious items including 8 items from the Rorschach test were selected through the principal factor method. The item parameters of the selected 40 items and the information function for the estimation of θ were then calculated. The estimates of θ were also calculated by the maximum likelihood method. A discussion on the charactristics of items and personality traits estimated on Movement took place. And the result proved that the estimate of θ (personality traits) in order to create Movement responses were not reliable at a low level.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of openness and closedness of personality by reviewing studies on openness to experience (Rogers, 1959) and dogmatism (Rokeach, 1954), and to construct Experience Inventory (EI) for measuring an openness-closedness dimension. Thirty items of EI were selected on the basis of the pretest data. Five factors emerged as a result of the factor analysis (subjects were 740 university students, 114 junior college students and 202 high school students). Some examinations of EI test score proved that (a) EI had internal consistency and test -retestreliabilityand (b) theEItestscorewasnotinfluencedbysocialdesirability. Advocation of construct validity of EI was justified by (a) some significant relations between the EI test score and subscale score of mental health (self-actualizing) test,(b) some significant relations between the EI test score and subscale score of creativity test and (c) a piece of evidence that open-minded person had a high tendency of awareness and acceptance of the contradictory traits in him / herself.
The purpose of this study was to construct Sense of Direction Questionnaire-Short Form (SDQ-S), and investigate its relationship with geographical orientation, personality traits and mental ability. 532 undergraduate students (female 373, male 159) were administered SDQ-S, and the results were factor-analyzed using the principal factor method and varimax rotation. Two factors, i.e., awareness of orientation Factor I, and memory for usual spatial behavior Factor II, could be identified from 17 items (9 items to Factor I and 8 items to Factor II). The reliability of the questionnaire was tested on the same subjects using internal consistency and split-half methods. The relations between sense of direction and geographical orientation based on 70 subjects suggested the concurrent validity of SDQ-S. Also, 47 subjects (female only) helped examining the influence of personality traits and mental ability on sense of direction.
Two experiments were designed to assess the effects of different order of presented instances on learning of scientific concepts. In Experiment I two kinds of reading materials described as common features of metal were constructed. The text given to Dk group explained those features by referring to instances in order of ‘copper→ calcium’. For Kd group the arrangement of ‘calcium→copper’ was used. As a result, Dk group showed better performance than Kd group in the recall-application test for common features. In Experiment II two kinds of reading materials describing a universal property of livestock were constructed. In the text given to Bk group, the property was explained by mentioning instances in order of ‘swine→silkworm’. For Kb group the arrangement of ‘silkworm→swine’ was chosen. As a result, Bk group showed higher score than Kb group in the recall-application test for a universal property. The obtained results from the two experiments were discussed on the basis of “heteroformulation theory” proposed by Fushimi, Y.(1990, 1991).
Using a sample of 134 kindergarten children, aged three to five, social problem solving abilities were examined using a hypothetical-response test. Two contrasting pictorical stimuli, based on everyday conditions depicting quarrel and cooperative situations, were verbally presented by students in psychology, one-to-one, to each child. In accordance with preestablished parameters, six estimates of the social problem solving abilities were obtained: (1) The total number of solutions; (2) The number of antisocial solutions; (3) The number of prosocial solutions; (4) The number of assertive solutions; (5) The number of solutions through referral to external intervention; and (6) The number of negative solutions. The teachers' numerical rating scale was used in order to assess each child's social competence. Through factor analysis, four factors from the teachers' rating scale were chosen for examination: (1) Social participation; (2) Dominance; (3) Cooperation; and (4) Attachment. The total number of solutions and social participation were marginally correlated (e.g., r=.26,.25), particularly for the group of five-year-old children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate kyosyu (hand raising in an educational setting) behavior mechanisms in an arithmetic class. In an arithmetic class, first, 30 sixth graders were requested to fill out a sheet of arithmetic questions, and a questionnaire in a 4-point scale for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and outcome value for kyoshu. They were then requested to perform kyosyu behavior, recorded by two video recorders. The result was that for relatively difficult questions, students who used kyosyu scored higher on the self-efficacy scale than those who didn't; though for relatively easy questions the kyosyu group scored higher on the outcome expectancy and outcome value scale.
The present study analysed metacognition in the process of solving arithmetic word problem. Sixty-three fifth graders were divided into high and low performer groups based on their achievement of an arithmetic criterion test. The arithmetic word problem used in this study was made of five sub-stages: prediction of result, problem comprehension, planning, executing and evaluation of result. Two procedures were used in the present study. First came the workseat measuring problem solving behavior and the second consisted of a stimulated-recall interview to measure awareness concerning problem solving (metacognition). Verbal response and behavior in the problem solving and interview were recorded by VTR and tape-recorder. The main findings were as follows: (1) High performer had significantly more metacognition scores than low performer; (2) High performer showed more self -monitoring activity than the low one.
Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of copying practice in three types of graphemes (letter, letter-like figure, elements of letter) on handwriting skills of novel letters having never been practiced before. The subjects were kindergarteners (5-6 years old) who had never been receiving teaching of letters. In Experiment I (N=14), transfer of the handwriting skills of specific letters to that of novel letters was studied. In Experiment II (N=24), transfer of the skills of letter -like figures to that of novel letters was studied. In Experiment III (N=22), transfer of the skills of elements of letters to that of novel letters was studied. The result showed that the effect of copying practice in each type of grapheme of some letters was transferred to the handwriting skills of the novel letters. The results were discussed on the basis of two recent motor theories, i.e. Adams's closed loop theory and Schmidt's schema theory.
The present paper reviews the methodology and findings of recent human behavioral genetics in relation to education. Under “interactionism”, genetic factors in human development and education have been minimized or treated as taboo. Genetic effect is, however, mainly additive and, heritabilities of IQ and various personality traits are considered to be about 50% in adulthood. Further more, concerning IQ, genetic effects tend to increase from infancy to childhood because of genotype-environment correlation. Recent behavioral genetics are also focusing on environmental effects and the concepts of shared / nonshared environment have been introduced. These findings suggest that genetic factors, are not only related to learning and development but also play an important role in the making of one's individuality. Finally, the educational implications of human behavioral genetics are making the topic for a discussion.
Since the beginning of this century, in Europe and America, a number of researches have been produced on the methodological problems of rating essays written to be evaluated on particular points of view. The most significant feature of essay tests is that the quality of responses should be judged subjectively by human raters. In spite of the educational merits of this testing method, it is hard to maintain the reliability of the tests, because various types of noises can easily be generated in scoring process. It seems that reseachers have given only little attention to these types of problems in our country. This article is trying to review some of the theoretical and empirical aspects of these researches which are considered beneficial to these methodological problems.