The present study was an attempt to classify and estimate the moratorium states of university students in Japan. The Moratorium Scale was developed and administered to 369 sophomores. In order to investigate the characteristics of the Moratorium Scale which had 4 subscales (AVOIDANCE, DIFFUSION, POSTPONEMENT, EXPLORATION) the relations between the Moratorium Scale and the Vocational Decisiveness Scale were examined by multiple regression analysis as well as the relations between the Moratorium Scale and the Identity Scale. These examinations proved the constructive validity of the Moratorium Scale. The relations between the Moratorium Scale and the Basic Identity Scale were also examined to inspect the developmental meaning of the moratorium states. The result suggested that the moratorium states such as AVOIDANCE and POSTPONEMENT could not be explained by the traditional psychoanalytic development theory on adolescence.
Effects of positive and negative feedback on students' self-evaluation were investigated. Junior high school students were administered self-esteem scale, the Guess-Who-Test (class members nominations) and rating scales on self-confidence and self-evaluation relating to group behavior items. Then, class teachers gave each student positive feedback based on the peer ratings. The main results were as follows: (1) Though on the whole positive feedback had raising effects on self-confidence and self-evaluation, it was found larger for low self-esteem students than for high self-esteem students; (2) Additional negative feedback only to high self-esteem students did not lower their self-confidence and self-evaluation but roused their willingness to improve their behavior when they were convinced of the truth of negative feedback. Based on the above results, effects of positive and negative feedback on students' self-evaluation were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to make a non-manual figure-background perception test and to re-evaluate the previous researches on figure-background perception in cases of cerebral palsy. In study 1, 14 stimuli consisting of common, everyday objects embedded in a randomly arranged circle background were located on a distance scale by a pair comparison method. In study 2, seven proper stimuli were selected as test stimuli. In study 3, this test was applied to 30-80 months normal children, normal adults, and those of cerebral palsy. The major results revealed that sex, handedness, chronological age, IQ, pathological type of cerebral palsy and topographic type of cerebral palsy were not associated with the test scores. However, drawing ability was profoundly related to figure-background perception. Based on these results, the theories of figure-background perception were then discussed at length.
This study investigated the effects of verbalization of mimetic-phoneme on the motor-memory in infants. Eighteen (Experiment 1) and Twenty (Experiment 2) normal 5-year-old subjects took part in the experiments. The task was to move the linear positioning slide horizontally away from the body with the prefered arm, with or without the utterance of mimetic or non-mimetic phoneme, at a distance of 1/3 or 2/3 of a fully arm-extended length (criterion movement), and to reproduce its movement as accurate as possible at 30, 90 and 150 seconds later. During the experiments each subject was blindfolded. Two experiments mainly revealed the followings: 1) Verbalization of phoneme prompted the reproduction of the criterion movement, regardless of the person uttering; 2) Verbalization of the mimetic phoneme prompted the movement reproduction better than that of a non-mimetic phoneme. These results indicated that the mimetic phoneme would easily synchronize with the kinesthetic information in younger children. The implication of these results for the rehabilitation of children with physical handicap was discussed.
Traditionally, discrepancies between positive ideal-self and real-self have been associated with low self-esteem. The basic idea of general positiveness of real-self is considered an index of self-esteem. But Rosenberg (1965) emphasized two different meanings, that is, ‘good enough’ and ‘very good’ being involved in self-esteem. His self-esteem scale favored the former. In the present study, it was hypothesized that not a general positiveness, but a personalized positiveness together with a non-negativeness were correlated with self-esteem (Rosenberg). Personalized standard were defined as high rating scores of positive and negative ideal selves. The results of the present study supported the hypothesis, especially in a negative ideal-self. It was suggested that self-esteem was more a function of distance how far I am from the person who I won't to be.
According to Rogers' theory, self-acceptance is a goal of psychotherapy, and the real-ideal discrepancy is acriterion of adaptation. Self-acceptance is to change one' s view-point toward himself, and it is considered to be regulated by a real-ideal discrepancy together with self-consciousness. The main purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between three variables. The research was enforced by handing a questionnaire to junior high school and college students:(1) SD self-concept scale for two self-images:‘like-self’ and ‘real-self’;(2) self-consciousness scale; and (3) self-acceptance scale. As a result, the grade differences of the mechanism for the relationship between a discrepancy, self-consciousness (sc) and self-acceptance, was examined. Jonior high school students showed that a discrepancy and PubSC had a negative effect, while PriSC had a positive one, and that there was an interaction effect between PriSC and PubSC. But college students were little affected concerning self-acceptance, and little difference between PubSC' and PriSC's effect was seen. Such result of college students suggested that self-acceptance concerned the factor except in cognitive self-images and self-consciousness.
In a previous study (Haryu, 1991) children were asked to choose one out of two objects, familiar and unfamiliar, as the referent of a novel label under conditions where it was clear that the novel label would refer to the familiar object, so that a familiar object would be chosen. Then the children were asked whether the label was referring to the familiar object. Three-year-olds were found to reject a novel label for afamiliar object presumably because they were inclined to find that category terms were mutually exclusive. But five-year-olds accepted the novel label for a familiar object. The present study aimed at testing the following two hypotheses.(1) Repeated questioning misleads three-year-olds in rejecting a novel label for a familiar object,(2) Five-year-olds tend to interpret the label as being consistent with their choice in a prior task. The result showed that the experience of choosing a familiar object in a prior task did not affect interpretation of the label.
The Empathic Experience Scale (EES) is a questionnaire constructed in order to measure empathy integrated both in emotional and cognitive approach. The purpose of this study is to examine the construct validity of the EES. 118 male university students were asked to answer the EES. 10 subjects were selected from the higher group and 11 from the lower one. The responses of amplitude and heart rate were measured by a plethysmograph while watching a video tape of a child expressing surprise, sorrow, or joy. Then, they were asked to complete self-reports of the child' s feeling and their own feeling concerning the experiment. The result was that the EES was related to self-reports without showing positive physiological signs. The self-reports indicated that the EES had a construct validity for positive feeling of others, but in the case of a negative feeling, empathy and sympathy were mixed. After discussion about the differences, it was suggested that the EES would measure latent empathy with other's negative feelings.
The present study was designed to investigate the role of metacognition monitoring story comprehension for retarded children. Subjects were 26 retarded children, ranging in chronological age from 8: 7 to 15: 5, in mental age from 3: 5 to 9: 11, and 31 normal children in chronological age from 4: 2 to 8: 4. Retarded children were divided into 3 groups with metacognitive ability according to the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA): the recognition for the goal of task, the intention for the solution of task, and the strategy use. The material was made of four stories. The experiments were composed of two tasks for each story. First, subjects were asked to make the order of the episode in the story ; and second, they were asked to tell the content of the episode. From these experiments, it was found that with increase of metacognitive ability, scores in both tasks became higher. The metacognitive ability functioning in story comprehension for retarded children was then discussed.
The goal of this research was to clarify children's difficulties in adapting existing knowledge to an unfamiliar task in accordance with the change of its task-structure. Eight to twelve year-old children with sophisticated knowledge about familiar clock were asked to solve a clock-task when the clock format was reversed and tasks of detecting time and its setting. The main results were as follows ; (1) 8 year-old children failed to abstract general rules from an existing knowledge on clock and to evaluate relations between general rules and task-structure ; (2) 10 year-olds could succeed in adapting general rules consistently to the reversed format ; (3) 12 year-olds could abstract general rules but failed to adapt them to the reversed format in accordance with its structure. These developmental changes were explained, based not only on the change of knowledge level but also on the change of children's errors occurring in subprocesses of reasoning.
The present paper investigated the question of what constitutes an impression of “figurative” speech. Twenty-two subjects read figurative expressions and rated their figurativeness on 50 adjective scales under two conditions. Condition 1 required subjects to rate figurative expressions using simple and direct impressions. Condition 2 required subjects to respond to figurative expressions paying attention to the surface forms of the expressions. Both results were quite similar. Both indicated that the 50 adjective scales were classified into several clusters. Within each cluster, the adjective scale which highly correlated to its own cluster component was selected for further research. Results suggested that impressions of figurative speech included both an intellectual or rational aspect and an affective aspect. Results also showed that both aspects consisted of 3 or 4 components. Ortony, Clore, and Foss (1987) have classified affective related words in terms of the types of situations they refered to in certain verbal contexts. Results from my study were compared with the classifications given by Ortony et al.(1987).
The present study investigated the variety of summaries and the determinants of its goodness. In Experiment 1, subjects were given two stories and asked to write a summary under either of the following two conditions, the referring-text condition in which subjects were allowed to see the original text while writing a summary, and the referring-memory condition in which subjects had to remember the story and summarize it without seeing the original text. Qualitative differences of summaries were found according to conditions, and the varieties of summaries were also observed among subjects. In Experiment 2, subjects were required to evaluate the summaries obtained from Experiment 1. Results showed that the summaries produced in referring-memory condition were evaluated poorer than the summaries in referring-text condition, because they tended to contain inadequate information and a lack of important information. Evaluations were divided concerning some summaries. Finally, four types of strategies of summary production considered to cause a variety of summaries, were proposed and the relationship between the strategies and the goodness of summaries were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between social cognition and reactive behaviors of victims in a situation where children were provoked by peers. Subjects were 293 elementary school children in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades (149 boys and 144 girls). While presenting one hypothetical provocative situation, 15 social cognitive variables including 3 domains of social information processing (interpretation of provocative situations, goal-setting, utility judgement of reactive behaviors) and 4 reactive behaviors (assertive, aggressive, say nothing, crying) were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. As a result of multiple regression analysis, it was found that these social cognitive variables were moderately correlated with all reactive behaviors. Especially, assertive goal-setting, friendly goal-setting, and utility judgement of assertive bahaviors were revealed to be important predictors of reactive behaviors. By additional analysis, hostile attributional bias which belonged to the domain of interpretation of provocative situations, was revealed to be a predictor of both assertive and friendly goal-settings.