Analogical problem solving is to solve a never met problem (the target domain) by using similar knowledge domain (the base domain). However, it has not sufficiently been obvious so far what factors were related to the similarity between both domains. This study investigated the effects of two factors related to the similarity between both domains on an analogical problem solving. The first factor was the correspondency of the goal structures between both domains, while the second factor was the mapping similarity between both domains. In this experiment, 341 university students were presented “fire story” as the base domain and then requested to solve “radiation problem” as the target domain. The results showed that both factors facilitated analogical problem solving.
In the present study two EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching methods were compared: the communicative approach (CA) and the grammatical approach (GA). In the CA, grammar was not directly taught or explained. On the other hand, in the GA, grammar was directly taught and frequently supplemented by some explanations in Japanese. The purpose of this study was to clarify how much differently these teaching approaches might affect students' acquirement of linguistic skills. Ninety fifth-graders were divided into two of the above mentioned instructional conditions. For each method there were 4 classes, each one taught by a different teacher. The total teaching time was 20 hours. Data for one class were not included in the final analysis due to experimental contamination. The results indicated that (1) GA students performed better in grammatical ability post test and in reading ability test 2 months later; (2) For the immediate post test, significant ATI (Aptitude Treatment Interaction) were found on several aptitudes, especially on intelligence, suggesting that GA would capitalize on as CA would compensate for intelligence. However, after a 2-month period, the pattern of ATI was found changed.
This paper discusses the development of a PCA-like method being able to capture the structure of incomplete multivariate data without any statistical assumption such as a multivariate normal distribution or a random missing process. This method, purely descriptive, is derived from a lower rank approximation of a data matrix with missing values. Parameters are estimated by the Newton-Raphson method in order to minimize the least squares criterion with respect to observed values. Two examples of educational measurement are added to demonstrate practial use of the method.
This study investigated 1) the relation between proportional reasoning and comparison of intensive quantity (thickness), and 2) the effect of manipulation of juice and water believed to contain proportional reasoning on the comparison of thickness. Adjustment tasks (proportional reasoning) and comparison tasks (comparison of thickness) were individually administered to 160 pupils in grades 3, 4, and 5. Answers to the tasks and their justifications were analyzed. The results showed that 1) proportional reasoning was found in the 3rd and 4th grades when preceding a comparison of thickness; and that 2) manipulation involving proportional reasoning promoted the performance on thickness comparison tasks, especially in 4th graders. The factors promoting the performance and its process were discussed.
The reformulated learned helplessness theory predicts that individuals who make internal, stable, global attributions for negative outcomes (i.e. depressive attributors) are more likely to become depressed when confronted with uncontrollable failures. To test this hypothesis, depressive attributors and nondepressive attributors (individuals making external, unstable, specific attributions) were exposed to either a solvable or an unsolvable cognitive task. They were later tested on a solvable test task. The results partially supported the reformulated learned helplessness theory, i.e. the theory is to predict an unsolvable task significantly impaired the performance of both depressive and nondepressive attributors. On the other hand, contrary to the theory's prediction, depressive attributors showed significantly less impairment in their performance than nondepressive subjects regardless of the pre-treatment. Additionally, path analysis revealed that the stability dimension of attributional style was found to be mildly related to test performance.
The purpose of this study was to develop a new method of team teaching for training student teachers and to investigate the effectiveness of the method. The originality of this method is as follows: (1) Two student teachers shared the two roles of the instructor based on two main functions, i.e., Performance and Maintenance of the PM leadership theory, and they interacted between the two roles; (2) Four situations of teaching were designed with reference to the basic cognitive processes of learners. The teaching plan was made to define the teamwork of the two student teachers in each of the four situations. This study also prepared two types of teaching as controls: One was instructed by a student teacher as in the usual case, and the other by a professional teacher. Results indicated that in pupils' reaction, this method was relatively similar to the method used by a professional teacher and that it was proved more effective than the method by one student teacher, both in the training effectiveness of the student teachers' leadership and in the learning effectiveness of pupils.
The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the effects of the Communicative Approach on motivation to learn; 2) to clarify the relationship between learners' affective factors, motivation and performance in a Communicative Approach; and 3) to investigate the relationship between learners' affective factors and teaching methods: i.e. ATI effects. In order to investigate the affective side of Communicative Approach, the Grammatical Approach was adopted as a control condtion. Eighty-nine fifth graders (10-11 year-old) were assigned to one of the two approaches and were taught elementary English in a 10-day course. The results indicated that Communicative Approach tended to increase learners' motivation. Also, the results showed that learners' motivation correlated positively with performance in a Communicative Approach. Furthermore, ATI effects were observed between the attitudes towards foreigners and the two approaches when oral performance was used as a dependent variable.
The present study examined the functional specialization of cerebral hemispheres when subjects would process the words in various contexts. Subjects were asked to match two words expressed in Kanji in graphemic, phonemic or semantic contexts. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from C3, C4, P3, P4, of normal right-handed adults. In graphemic processing, P300 potentials calculated by grand average method were significantly larger in the right hemisphere than those in the left hemisphere. In contrast, P300 potentials were significantly larger in the left hemisphere in phonemic and semantic processing. These results suggested that when the words expressed in Kanji were recognized, the right hemisphere became superior in the graphemic processing while the left hemisphere superiority would be dominant in the phonemic and semantic processing.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of communicative activities in vocabulary learning. Based on the levels of processing framework proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972), the following hypothesis was drawn: communicative activities were superior to non-communicative activities in terms of retention of learning items on the condition that time allocations would be the same in both activities. The same amount of time was allocated to both communicative and non-communicative activities, both of which were practiced in actual teaching of Japanese as a second language. The degrees of retention of newly introduced vocabulary were compared between the above two kinds ofactivities. Two sets of class time were set up to achieve the comparison. The results of both experiments showed that the retentions of newly introduced vocabulary in communicative activities were higher than those in non-communicative activities. These results supported the hypothesis based on the levels of processing framework for human memory.
Recent experiments(Magara, 1989) demonstrated that a high typicality instance(the pig) showed more positive effects than a low typicality instance (the silk worm) on learning from reading materials describing some properties of the livestock. And such results were discussed from the viewpoint of “typicality effect”. The purpose of the present paper was to find an explanation to the methodological problem in original researches, and to confirm again “typicality effect”. The obtained results failed to come to a proper replication. The original findings might be accounted for by the fact that most subjects are inclined to place high typicality instances rather than low ones in the category concerned in their pre-existing knowledge.
The present investigation examined the effects of components and threatening situations on a manifestation of Type Abehavior in children. Two hundred and fifty -Six children (grade3-4) were classified by MYTH's two sub-scale scores into four types composed of high or low competitiveness by high or low impatience-aggresiveness. All subjects were assigned to one of four task situations, labelled as threatening by competition, threatening by time pressure, no threatening of control, or relaxing. Type A behavior was assessed by Stroop Color Word Test performance. Results showed that competitiveness was more related to a manifestation of Type A behavior than impatience-aggressiveness, and that childrens' manifestation of Type A behavior increased in threatening situations more than in non-threatening control or relaxing conditions.
This study has focused on the adjustment process of students who made the environmental transition from elementary to junior high school. Changes in and effects of a wide range of variables associated with the transition and educational attempts to ease the transition were reviewed as follows: changes in the school and classroom environments between elementary and junior high school, students' beliefs and behaviors before and after the transition, factors influencing students' adjustment process, and educational prevention programs that would facilitate the students' adjustment. Based on the above findings, the nature of adjustment process in the environmental transition was discussed from the viewpoints of the person-in-environment transaction approach, together with several attached problems.