This study aimed to examine three factors in the spatial perspective-taking problem (presented stimulus, response modes, and effects of experience), based on the premise that spatial cognition has two types of cognitive modes. Subjects were four-, six-, and eight-year-old children. The experiment was divided into three sessions (pre-test, experiential trial, and post-test). In the pre- and post-tests, children were asked to anticipate the visual percepts from the marker (a small doll). In the experiential trial, they were shown arranged objects rotated or moved to the marker so they could view arranged objects. Results were as follows: (1) In contrast to standard perspective-taking problems, even for four-year-old children most were easy to solve when object configurations were already separated from their surroundings.(2) Interactions between the response modes (object construction or photo selection) and viewpoints (oneself or the other) were seen.(3) There were some effects of experience overall, but no difference among the types of experience except for 6 year-old.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of between-item and within-item elaborations on incidental learning of words. Three targets of each triplet eliciting a converging associate were presented in massed or spacing fashion. In Experiments I and II, subjects were asked to rate the relation between each target and its paired word (associate in Exp. I or non-associate in Exp. II) with a five-point scale followed by free recall and recognition tests. Recall performances and clustering scores of targets as converging associates were recognized proved to be higher than their specific associates. The massed presentation led to a better recall than did the spacing presentation. The clustering score was also higher in the massed than in the spacing presentation. These results in Exp. I showed that the between-item elaboration was more effective than the within-item elaboration in a free recall, and that the massed presentation led to an effective between-item elaboration. The effects of types of presentation on recall performance and clustering scores were not observed in Exp. II. These above results showed that the semantic relation between the targets and the added information was critical to an effective elaboration.
Two experiments were carried out in an incidental learning paradigm. In Experiment I, 35 sixth-graders and 22 undergraduates were asked to rate the sematic congruity of each target with sentence frame followed by free and cued recall tests. Free recall performance of targets was better in syntactic-congruous sentence frames than in syntactic-incongruous ones in both groups. Sentences containing an associate of each target had led to better cued recall performance than those without. In Experiment II, 33 sixth-graders and 23 undergraduates were asked to rate the semantic congruity of each target with sentence frame followed by free recall, recognition and cued recall tests. Each target was referred to have been elaborated when the word in its sentence frame was hit in recognition test. In sixth graders free recall performance of the elaborated targets was seen better in sentences containing their associate, but the difference between the two sentences was not observed in the undergraduates. These results were interpreted as showing a developmental difference in the effect of aid for integration of targets into cognitive structure.
In a cooperative problem-solving setting, Nakayama (1984) found that children's behaviors differed significantly as a function of their motivational orientations (i.e. social and task orientation). The present study examined whether these behaviors could also be observed in their interactions with peers. Children in four elementary -school samples (total N = 674) were classified into four groups according to relative strength of social and task orientation. In order to tap various aspects of their peer interactions, subjects were given some questionnaires to complete. Socially oriented groups had many friends and shared various experiences with them. Moreover, the two socially oriented groups showed different interactions, though. HL group (social orientation being dominant) was frequently selected as friend by their classmates while sharing intimate and confidential experiences. On the other hand, HH group (both orientations being high) was active to form new friendships, and reported somewhat instrumental relations. These results, along with other findings on less socially oriented groups, paralleled to those found in a previous study (Nakayama, 1984), suggested that children's motivational orientations had a consistent influence in such settings.
In this study, two issues concerning processes of prospective memory, that is, the relations between the use of memory aids and metamemory knowledge, and the effect of activities which arise on process till remembered, were examined. Eighty undergraduates were asked to bring four objects they may use in class or test hours two weeks later. The main results were as follows: 1) the relation between use or non-use of memory aids and metamemory knowledge weren't noticed ; 2) according to the importance and the effort made in order to bring the objects manipulated as experimental factors, recognition of importance, memory aids and conversation with others, etc., influenced the subject's performances in various ways, suggesting that conversation with others may have two functions (monitoring and reciprocal supplements) specially in the processes of prospective memory.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of perceived social supports by friends and parents on psychological well-being in a life transition. In addition, the levels of ideal as well as present social supports are examined, and it is investigated whether the more social supports they have than they wish, the more effects they have on psychological well-being. Subjects are 165 freshmen (48 males and 117 females). Whether they had a life transition or not are based on their states of residence, i.e. living with parents or alone after getting into a university. Major findings are as follows: (1) Both social supports have an effect on psychological well-being, especially loneliness. That is, thoes having more social supports feel less lonely than thoes with less support.(2) The level of loneliness is determined by friends' social support, mostly emotional support.(3) The more social supports they have than they disire, the less lonely they feel and the more satisfied with their university life they are.
Developmental characteristic of the visual search was examined through eye movement recordings detected by the scleral reflectional method. Healthy children aged 6 to 11 years participated in the experiment. A subject was asked to find a figure identical to the standard one presented at the center of the screen, from the four optimal figures presented at equi-distant locations in the four screen corners (Cohen 1981). Three different distance conditions were used, i.e. 3°or 6°or 12°. The main results were as follows: (1) Subjects tended to find the target figure with less numbers of fixations under the 3°condition.(2) In the early stage of searching, 6 year-old group tended to fixate the standard figure more frequently.(3) An average duration of a fixation decreased significantly up to 8 years old. It was inferred that an efficient strategy in visual searching might be stabilized at about 8 years optimally utilizing the visual informations within a limited short time. This strategy may be further supplemented with the effective retrieval of the visual memories.
The purpose of this study was to obtain data in order to make a Children's Social Support Scale. In two pilot studies, basic data was gathered by open-end questionnaires concerning the content and sources of social support appreciated by elementary school children. The pilot study I was administered to 78, 6th graders, while pilot study II to 96, 4th graders and 172, 6th graders. After item analyses, 11 items were selected, followed by the construction of a scale assessing Children's Social Support (CSS). The results regarding the reliability and the validity of CSS were as fo llows: 1) Study II (administered to 451, 4th to 6th graders) showed an internal correlation of r =.96, after an adaption to the Spearman-Brown formula. Moreover, the test / retest reliability was a high r =.89, confirming the reliability of CSS. 2) Positive correlation with another social support scale (Hisada et al. 1989) was r =.87, whereas the correlation with a child depression scale (Sakurai 1989) proved negative r =-.34.
Two experiments were conducted to e xamine the sentence comprehension of Japanese children under 6 years of age. The stimulus sentences were unusual “Object-Action” ones, such as “Ningyo-o nageru” (throw the doll). To act out the sentences the children were presented with pairs of toys: appropriate animate objects (a doll, etc.), and perplexing ones (a ball). There were some stages of the comprehension of the sentences: At around 2 years of age, the occurrence of the Target Responses (children throwing the ball to the appropriate object) was almost equal to th ose of the Correct Responses ; at around 3 years of age still a few Target Responses were remained ; in 4- and 5- year olds, the Correct Responses were dominant. Although, the stimulus sentences were changed from those with the particle (-o) to th ose with another (-ni), only 5-year-old children were able to react to the change of the sentence meaning. As a conclusion: children under 5 years of age seem to rely on semantic cues and take preference of Object-Action relations in grasping the meaning o f “Object-Action” sentences.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of children's popularity and sex on the social cognition and reactive behaviors in a provocative situation. Subjects were elementary school children in the 4th, 5th, 6th grades (224 boys and 197 girls). Questionnaires, designed to assess several social cognitive variables, included 3 domains of social information processing (interpretation of the situation, interpersonal goal-setting, utility judgement of reactive behavior) and 9 reactive behaviors in a hypothetical provocative situation. Children's popularity was also assessed. The results were as follows: (1) Interpersonal goals of boys were more hostile and more assertive than those of girls ; (2) Boys' reactive behaviors were more aggressive on two self-report measures (appeal to teachers and physical aggression) and girls' reactive behaviors were less assertive on one self-report measure (say nothing); (3) Interpersonal goals of unpopular children were more hostile than those of popular children; (4) Unpopular children's reactive behaviors were more aggressive on one self-report measure (exclusion from peer groups) and less friendly-assertive on two peer-nomination measures. Some educational implications were discussed.
A patient with organic anterograde memory disorders was previously reported as having a dissociation between recall and clustering on categorical effects (normal recall and lower clustering) in an incidental learning situation. To further study the recall-clustering relationship in the amnesic patient, the present experiment was conducted in an intentional learning. In order to compare with the incidental learning, the same words used in the previous experiment were presented. It was discovered that recall and clustering of the patient were significantly lower than those of normal controls. The comparison between the learning situations showed that while clustering was substantially facilitated due to the intention to learn, recall was not elevated. The results confirmed the dissociation of recall and clustering in the patient. The role of clustering in a free recall was discussed.
This study investigated the developmental changes in effect of verbalization strategy of onomatopeia on the motor memory. Blindfolded subjects in four agegroups (5 years, 8 years, 11 years, adults) were required to move the linear positioning slide horizontally away from the body with preferred arm, with or without the verbalization of onomatopeia (criterion movement). Task length was 1/3 and 2/3 of arm-extended length. This length was repeated 30, 90, and 150 seconds interval after criterion movements with or without verbalization of onomatopeia. The result was as follows.(1) Verbalization throughout criterion and reproduction movement promoted the reproduction movement in spite of the ages ; (2) Verbalization during criterion movements promoted the correct reproduction in 5 and 8 year old subjects, whereas it disturbed the reproduction in 11-year-old subjects and adults. These differences of performance reflecting whether subjects could use strategies of their own spontaneously in memorizing the task movement were discussed.