Although rule assessment approach for the study of children's problem solving is a promising direction, it presently has two drawbacks: the set of rules arising from the approach being not always well-grounded and complete, and the criterion of rule assignment proving statistically insufficient. This paper demonstrates that conceptualization of children's rules as production system is viable for clarifying researcher's rule generation process, and it demonstrates also that a modified version of latent class analysis proves to be a more suitable statistical model for evaluating children's task performance. The combination of production-system and latent class analysis concepts were applied to the data obtained by Noelting's juice problemamong 4th to 9th graders, and it was found that, in addition to the rules already proposed, the subtraction bug rule was adopted by the children.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological changes in middle-aged women based on three occupational groups (housewives, nurses and school teachers) from a viewpoint of the Erikson's concept of ego identity (1950). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 59 women in their 40's: 17 housewives, 23 nurses and 19 teachers. The following results were found. First, ego identity changes were reported to occur in middle-age, and the nature of changes differed among the three groups: 1) housewives intended to get a new identity outside the home, because domestic roles were thought inappropriate as the bases of identity; 2) nurses tended to keep occupational identity built firmly in adolescence, and 3) identity changes among teachers were closely related to the quality of education in the school. Second, the four patterns of ego identity changes were suggested: a) stable home (occupational) identitypersonal identity: b) unstable home (occupational) identity personal identity ; c) stable home (occupational) identityreconfirmation and continuance ; and d) unstable home (occupational) identity unable to change.
According to the Thurstonean point of view, a usual two-parameter normal ogive model can be derived as a special case of the Law of Categorical Judgement, where all subjects have common dispersion parameter. The generalized item response (GIRT) model, first proposed by Torgerson (1958), is an extension of the IRT model, in which each subject is characterized not only by the ability parameter (θ) but also by the dispersion parameter (Φ). For a subject characterized by (θ, Φ), the probability that he/she answers the item correctly is given by Pr (U=1|θ, Φ) =φ ((θ-b)), where φ is the standard normal or logistic distribution function and (a, b) constitutes the set of usual item parameters. In this article, an item parameter estimation method maximizing the marginal likelihood where the subject parameters (θ, Φ) are integrated out, is presented.
The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of double-bind communication on human information processing system and emotion, and to examine how vocal information with incongruence of tone of voice and verbal content would be perceived and memorized. The experiment was carried out with 2-2 design of (tone of voice: positive vs negative), and (verbal content: positive vs negative). The subjects (80 female undergraduates) were derived into 4 groups of 20 persons each. Subjects while presented tape-recorded passages were asked to rate some scales about the passages, and to reproduce the passages as close to the original as possible. The results were as follows: 1) passages perceived as incongruent by subjects were recalled less than those perceived congruent; 2) recall errors were induced by the tone of voice; 3) subjects with high trait anxiety recalled less than those with low trait anxiety when perceiving incongruence, and 4) the passages with negative tone of voice and positive verbal content were perceived incongruent, while the opposite (positive tone of voice and negative verbal content) was not.
The purpose of this study was to clarify how Marcia's four ego identity status groups differed in regard to the affective (cognitive-motivational) aspect of time perspective. Subjects were 150 male and 135 female undergraduates. They were administered the following three questionnaires: 1) Time attitude scale, composed of 20 pairs of adjectives to measure attitude toward personal past, present and future; 2) Circles Test, measuring relation among personal past, present and future; 3) Kato's (1983) identity status questionnaire, made of 12 questions concerning present commitment, past crisis and future pursuit. The main results were as follows: 1) Attainment and Moratorium drew three circles more integrated patterns than on Foreclosure and Diffusion; 2) Diffusion had the most negative attitude toward their personal past, present and future. Foreclosure was found the most positive, while Attainment and Moratorium ranked intermediate. From the above results, it was suggested that Attainment had the most realistic and planned attitude toward the future.
In this article, the function of utterance in explaining action-sequences was studied from two different points of view: 1) mutual knowledge; and 2) evaluation of the explanation. In the first experiment, two groups of subjects (they were mutually known or unknown) were asked to explain how to fold paper into ‘Turu’, and their performances were recorded on video tapes. Then, their utterance was put into five classes and the frequencies of utterance in each class were compared between the two groups. In the second experiment, subjects evaluated the explanations acquired in the first experiment, and the relation between the evaluation and the utterance in the explanations were examined. Results were as follows: 1) Subjects, mutually known, produced more abstract utterance; 2) Subjects, mutually unknown, gave more additional utterance; and 3) The explanations containing additional utterance were set at a high value while the explanations containing unrelated utterance for folding paper were set at a low value.
This study examined the effects of perceived task importance on the generality of self-efficacy. To evaluate the generality of self-efficacy, three dependent measures were used: (a) self-efficacy predicting the present performance; (b) future self-efficacy predicting the final performance; and (c) volitional-efficacy measuring volitions, attitudes and interests. The results were as follows: 1. Self-efficacy enhanced based on the performance of an important task instills a more generalized sense of efficacy than on an unimportant task. 2. The perceived importance of the task also effects the generality of volitional efficacy. 3. The tendencies of self-efficacy generality differ between tasks.
The purpose of this paper was to compare the verbal ability of Chinese and Japanese children. A test of Chinese vocabulary in which some items were translated from Shiba's (1978) Japanese vocabulary test was administered to about 3000 Chinese children. An ability scale for Chinese vocabulary was constructed based upon Item Response Theory. Using the set of common items, the ability and item parameters were compared between both Chinese and Japanese children. Then the obtained estimates were studied using two different methods. The results showed that the distribution of abilities in both Chinese and Japanese children was not markedly different.
The present experiment examined effects of rehearsal strategies during off-time on initial free recall (IFR) and final free recall (FFR) performance in young children (aged three and five). Performance in pictorial memory was found superior to the auditory one in IFR and FFR. The five-year-old children's performance proved superior to the three-year-old in IFR and FFR. There were significant effects of OFF-TIME in IFR and FFR, while significant serial position effect was seen on pictorial and auditory in all age conditions in IFR. Significant between-rehearsal groups difference in final parts of serial position showed in IFR, but not in FFR. Pronounce rehearsal group's performance was superior to association rehearsal and silent rehearsal groups' both in IFR and FFR. Significant primary effects were seen in pictorial and auditory in all rehearsal groups in all age conditions in IFR and FFR, though significant recent effects were noticed in pictorial and auditory in all rehearsal in IFR, except in FFR.
An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of a reading format with “whispering -to-oneself” (Tanaka, 1983) on children's text comprehension. In this format, subjects were asked to read a text in a whisper and to narrate ideas which occurred to them during the reading. Both oral and silent reading formats were used as control conditions. Ninety-one 6th grade children were assigned to one of the three formats. Three aspects of the children's text comprehension were measured as dependent variables: text memory both on the literal level and on the phonological level, and text processing on the semantic level. Analysis of covariance, where the score of the Japanese language test was a covariate, was performed. Results showed the dominance of the “whispering-to-oneself” format over the other two in the phonological memory of the text, but not in the semantic processipg. These results were discussed in terms of setting of reading goal and distribution of processing resources in text processing. The necessity of experimental control on the reading formats was also pointed out.
According to the view that the attribute of tones has two components: & ldquo;pitch & rdquo; (tone height) and & ldquo;chroma & rdquo; (tone chroma), absolute pitch (AP) is to be defined as the ability of & ldquo;chroma & rdquo; identification. The purpose of this study was to examine how well AP possessors of the ability to identify & ldquo;chroma & rdquo;, and non-possessors of no such ability could identify & ldquo;pitch & rdquo;. Subjects were 20 non-possessors, 10 AP possessors who were able to identify all tones' chroma (AP possessors [all]) and 10 AP possessors who were able to identify only white key tones' chroma (AP possessors [white]). According to our study, a pitch identification task showed differences among groups. AP possessors [all] showed to be superior to non-possessors. By contrast, AP possessors [white] proved to be the same as non-possessors. The results suggested that AP possessors [all] identified pitch absolutely, and non-possessors did it according to its relative heights of tones. AP possessors [white] showed confused error patterns.
The present experiment examined the decoding and encoding of conflict messages in order to assess the relative contribution of facial expression, tone of voice, voice, and content of speech to the integrated impression of the whole. Undergraduate and graduate students (N=16, aged 20-28) were required to study acted, videotaped conflicting messages. The results were as follows: 1) Facial expression of encoders played a major role in decoding of conflicting messages. However, in decoding negative facial expression, the voice in contributing more than any others to interpret the integrated impressions of the whole. 2) Males were more consistent than females in decoding affect of the encoders. 3) Encoders themselves rated the contribution of vocal and visual channels equally. However, negative facial expression was evaluated disproportionally negative to the original intention of encoders by decoders. These results suggested that the Japanese university students tend to shift their point of evaluation to another point when encountering negative facial expressions in order to avoid negative social interactions while decoding.
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the suggestibility effects might be obtained for fifth and second graders. After subjects were shown a series of events, subjects on misleading condition were asked to fill out questionnaires that contained false information concerning the event, while subjects on control condition were asked to fill out questionnaires not containing false information. Then the subjects were given either a recognition test or a source monitoring test. Results of the experiment showed that the number of witness responses for the misleading items was significantly greater on misleading conditions than the one on control conditions, but for the other items the differences between them were not significant. The results also showed that the number of conflict responses was significantly greater than that of rewriting responses on the recognition test but not on the source monitoring test. These results suggested that children's suggestibility was not only due to their integrated memory representation, but also to their inability to discriminate between memories of original and misleading information.
A questionnaire made of 71 items was presented to 211 mothers: of these, 119 had their child attending kindergarten (KG group), and 92 a nursery school (NS group); such groups were made in order to investigate the relation between environmental factors, mother's rearing attitude and their child's psychosomatic symptom or behavior, and also to extract some pathological factors from such rearing attitude and environment. Using the following three methods the obtained deta were examined: 1. Comparison between KG group and NS group by each item's average score; 2. Factor analysis for all subjects ; and 3. Comparison between the two groups by factor scores extracting seven factors and testing correlation coefficient into factor scores. The results showed some difference in rearing according to the environment, but no difference in child's psychosomatic symptoms and behavior between the two groups was observed. It was suggested that child's symptoms were caused by their mother' s poor rearing attitude caused by poor rearing environment, for example, a decrease in relations with the neighborhood, etc.