As for the development of proportionality concept, Inhelder & Piaget (1955) mainly administered adjustment tasks and proposed domain generality. On the contrary, Siegler (1981) and other researchers used comparison tasks and proposed domain specificity. This study used both tasks and examined domain specificity among children's solutions to two proportionality tasks: velocity and thickness. Adjustment tasks and comparison tasks about velocity and thickness were administerd to 144 pupils from third to sixth grades. Task scores, stages identified by reaction patterns and justifications, and solution strategies were analyzed. The results showed that reasoning in adjustment tasks (proportional reasoning) was domain general at each grade, and that reasoning in comparison tasks (comparison of intensive quantity) was domain specific from fourth to sixth graders. Domain specific sub-process (comparison process) and relatively domain general sub-process (relation-representation process and calculation process) were discussed.
Causal relations of determinants of achievement motivation for learning in physical education were examined based on the Expectancy-Affect model (EA model) presented in this study. This model assumed the causal linkages among (1) the achievement motivation for learning in physical education,(2) primary factors such as perceived expectancy and affect in physical education situations,(3) secondary factors as participation and past experiences in physical activities, and relationships between pupils and physical education teachers or friends, and (4) third factors as parent-child relationship, mental and physical health, environments for learning and physical activities. The questionnaires concerning these factors/ variables were administered to 743 fifth and sixth grade pupils. The path analyses applied to the data, revealed the assumed causal linkages among the factors. These results, namely, showed that the third factors influenced the secondary ones, secondary influenced primary, and eventually primary factors determined the achievement motivation for learning in physical education. In view of the results, it seemed that the EA model in this study was generally supported.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the strategy of reforming learners' autogenetic erroneous criteria called ru. The rule on the sum of interior angles in a triangle was adopted. Beforehand, the fifth grade subjects had applied the rule only to a limited extent. Three groups called A, B, C were formed and were given 3 different instructions respectively. Group A subjects were instructed to form examples which they misjudged as exceptions and were to verify them according to the rule. Group B verified the rule with the examples which they had to choose one out of six previously set up under the same instruction as Group A. Group C were to do the same verification task as of Group A, though without being given a specific instruction in the forming task. The results suggested that it was difficult for learners to form the examples they spontaneously misjudged as exceptions. In post-test, Groups A, B, and C made good marks in the same order. Such results showed that the instruction making the learner verify the rule on a self made example had effects on reforming ru.
Two experiments were conducted to explore whether young children could understand the notion of promises. Five and six year old children were asked to estimate the degree of anger when a promise had been broken. Three types of promise -breaking were considered: promise breaking intentionally, forgetting, and to be an accident. The experiment 1 revealed that 6 year-olds could distinguish the accidental promise breaking from the others, and could judge it to be most forgivable. In the experiment 2, stories were prepared where the three types of promise-breaking were combined in one situation while subjects were asked to rank them, in order to have the subjects to show a greater sensitivity to differences between the three types of promise -breaking. The results showed that 6 year-olds could appropriately distinguish the three types of promise-breaking, and that even 5 year-olds were able to judge the accidental promise-breaking to be the most forgivable. These results suggested that even preschoolers have the understanding of others' mental states as well as promises.
This study examined the relations between children's sociometric status and perceptions on their social behaviors by peers, student teachers and a teacher. Positive and negative sociometric nomination measures were administered to 124 preschool children. Using a combination of these measures, five sociometric status groups were identified: popular (P), rejected (R), average (A), neglected (N) and controversial (C). Peers' perceptions of their social behaviors were assessed by nominations and those of student teachers and a teacher by their ratings to the identical 9-items. Three dimensions resulted from factor analysis of the assessment measures: aggression, social competence and withdrawal. All of peers, student teachers and a teacher perceived both R and C groups as more aggressive and both R and N groups as more socially incompetent than P group. Correlations between pairs of peers', student teachers' and a teacher's assessments to each dimension of aggression, social competence and withdrawal were all moderate but significant. These findings suggested that preschoolers could provide a reliable information of peers' social behavior as well as peers' social status.
This study was undertaken to study visual interaction of non-retarded infants and Down's syndrome infants in request situations. The subjects were 21 non-retarded infants and Down's syndrome infants with MAs from 7 months to 18 months. Visual interactions were analyzed from polygraph recordings of visual behaviors of mothers and infants in request situation. The frequency of four types of “visual following” behaviors through which infants and mothers reached the state of joint attention or eye to eye contact were counted. In non-retarded infants, in the case of eye to eye contact, the visual following of infants remarkably increased from 11 months, proving that ratio of initiative visual following of infants increased with age. In the case of joint action, visual followings of infants were found even in the younger group. In Down's infants, though visual followings increased with age, they were seen significantly less than in non-retarded infants being mostly initiated by mothers.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the cognitive interference thinkings while testing. According to Mandler & Sarason (1952), test anxiety was defined as a “task-irrelevant thinkings which interfers test score”. In this study, to measure the task -irrelevant thinkings while testing, the Cognitive Interference Scale for collegestudents (CIS) was constructed. The Subjects were 143 college students (63 males and 80 females). By factor analysis, CIS was divided into 3 factors. They were named as follows: test avoidance factor, test negative factor, frustration factor. By using the CIS, the conclusion of this study were as follows.(1) The correlation between test anxiety and cognitive interference thinkings while testing was positive. Specially, high test anxiety subjects cognized test as a negative event.(2) The correlation between test fatigue and cognitive interference thinkings while testing proved positive. Specially, nervous fatigue by test caused test avoidance behavior.
This study compared implicit and explicit memory in mentally retarded adults versus university students. Subjects were shown 20 increasingly complete pictures until they were correctly identified. After two retention intervals, 5 minutes and 1 week, half of 20 pictures and 10 new pictures were presented for identification using the same procedure. After identifying each picture, subjects were asked whether or not they had seen it before. Perceptual priming effects on picture fragment completing (implicit memory) and recognition rates (explicit memory) were compared. Recognition rates differed between the two groups irrespective of retention intervals. Both groups showed significant priming effects. In spite of their poor performance at recognition, the priming effect in the retarded group did not differ from that of the university students. A group×interval interaction was found. These results suggest that mentally retarded adults can remember past events as well as college students so far as information was processed implicitly. The above results, therefore, can demonstrate that performance on implicit memory does not improve with intelligence.
In this study, elements of social competence of young children were examined. One hundred twenty-nine young children were interviewed using hand puppets, and their enactive and verbal responses at two hypothetical situations were collected. Then teachers were asked to rate children's social behavior using a questionnaire made of 18 items. Additionally sociometric interviews were administered to children. Enactive and verbal responses were coded into two response categories (i. e. sociable or unsociable) respectively. By combining enactive and verbal response patterns, subjects were classified into five subgrous. Then the results of factor analysis of the teacher's questionnaire produced four factors. These factor scores were examined using MANOVA with five subgroups as independent variables; significant multivariate main effects and univariate main effects of assertiveness factor were obtained. Similarly three sociometric scores were examined using MANOVA and only multivariate main effect was obtained. Results indicated that children whose both enactive and verbal responses proved high were socially well adapted, while those with enactive responses were only high were socially isolated.
In order to examine the transition of time in parents-child relationships, the data of the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory were collected 25 years ago by KOJIMA, and the same scales' data collected in 1990 by the author were compared by means of a canonical discriminant analysis. 2 pairs of canonical factors were similarly significant in both data, though factor structures were a little different. Means of canonical variables of four groups (son-father, son-mother, daughter-father, daughter-mother) also showed a little difference but the total patterns were similar on the canonical axes. The differences of means and standard deviations were tested. From these results, the role of parents of 25 years ago seemed to be clearer than nowadays. Present parents' attitude on emotional control seemed to be stronger than in the past.
The purposes of the present study were to construct an apathy tendency scale and to examine the relationship between apathy and ego identity, parental image, and motivation for entering university. First, 37 items were selected from past studies related to apathy. A reliable and valid scale of apathy (apathy tendency scale) was then constructed by statistical analyses. In addition to the apathy tendency scale, the following four scales were administered to 381 university students (140 males and 241 females): Rusmussen's ego identity scale, two measurements of parental image, and a scale of motivation for entering university developed by Fuchigami (1984). The main findings were as follows: 1) Identity confusion and unfocused motivation for entering university influenced strongly the tendency for apathy. 2) Differences between males and females responding to the parental image measurement were found. The image of the paternal mother was important to male students. The psychological distance between mother and daughter was found important to female students.
The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the effects of the Communicative Approach (CA) on learning and motivation to learn in a class of 40 students, 2) to investigate the effects of Team Teaching (TT) by a Japanese teacher and an assistant English teacher (AET) on learning and motivation to learn, 3) to clarify the learning process of CA and TT, and 4) to investigate the relationship between learners' affective factors and the two teaching methods (CA, GA), that is, Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI) effects. A 2×2 factorial design was adopted: two teaching methods, i. e. Communicative Approach (CA), Grammatical Approach (GA) in two teacher's conditions: a Japanese teacher with an assistant English teacher, a Japanese teacher only. One hundred and fifty-eight sixth graders were assigned to one of the four conditions and were taught English for a period of eight day. The results indicated that the Communicative Approach produced higher oral results, and that CA tended to motivate learners towards communicative activities. ATI effects were observed between the attitudes towards English and the two teaching methods when motivation would be used as a dependent variable.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of effort attributional evaluation on children's perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement. Children, in the second and third-grade of elementary school, lacking subtraction skills, received training in subtraction operation under treatment conditions. The treatment conditions were; (1) effort acceptance paying attention to success,(2) effort requirement paying attention to failure, and (3) control groups. Results showed that acceptance condition of effort led to greater skill development and higher percepts of self-efficacy than any other conditions. Requirement condition of effort was seen promoting skill development, though not perceiving self-efficacy. The findings suggested that providing effort attributional evaluation concerning achievement was effective in promoting children's achievement, and effort acceptance paying attention to success was most effective in children's perception self-efficacy.
The present study represents an attempt to clarify the developmental changes in the drawing behavior of children by analyzing and comparing their perceptions, intents, and drawings of a cylinder. Children aged 3, 4, and 5, respectively were given the same three tasks. First, they were told to choose a photograph of a cylinder which they perceived most like a cylinder from a set of cards. Secondly, they had to choose the best drawn cylinder card they intended to draw. Finally, they had to make a drawing of it using pastel. The following is a summary of the results of the above study. The 5-year-olds displayed a better correspondence between photo choice task and drawing choice task than the 3-and 4-year-olds. The 4-and 5-year-olds also displayed a correspondence between drawing choice task and drawing task than the 3 -year-olds. The above results proved that the correspondence among perception of a cylinder, drawing intent, and actual representation increased with age.