This study investigated the effects of criterion-referenced evaluation on children's intrinsic motivation. Two conditions of Evaluation-Standard (criterion-referenced and control) were crossed with two conditions of Evaluation-Subject (evaluation by the teacher and self-evaluation). 148 fifth graders learned the concept and calculation of fraction for 7 days, and took quizzes each day. They were evaluated, based on the result of quizzes corresponding to the four experimental conditions. Results indicated that criterion-referenced evaluation increased intrinsic motivation, perceived competence and positive attitude toward the thinking process. Furthermore, several Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATI) were found, indicating that criterion-referenced self-evaluation tended to compensate intrinsic motivation for the children who had low motivation as an aptitude.
This study examined the effect of critical opinions on discourse production. In experiment I, forty-one university undergraduates were divided into three groups (control group, self-criticized group, and criticized group), and were asked to write their opinions. After they had received critical opinions, they were asked to write their opinions once again. Although the groups did not differ significantly in the opinions expressed in their essays, more subjects in the treatement groups significantly changed their main opinions than did subjects in control group. In experiment II, twenty-nine university undergraduates were tested as in experiment I except that, instead of second essays, they were asked to elaborate their original essays using a think-aloud method. Protocol analysis showed that the elaborations “as writer” and “as reader” appeared significantly more frequently than “others (e. g., correction of the erratum)”, and that the groups that received critical opinion had longer protocols (by one elaboration).
This study was to investigate the influences of mother tongue as a second language acquisition. In survey I, three groups of Chinese who had been learning Japanese language for varying periods were asked: (i) to choose the appropriate passive voice markers, and (ii) to rate the naturalness of the Japanese passive sentences. The responses of each group were compared with those of 130 Japanese. In survey II, 101 Chinese were asked to rate the naturalness of Chinese sentences which were translated from the Japanese sentences of Survey I. The main results were: (i) the error rate in passive voice markers choice decreased as the learning years increased while ratings of naturalness remained relatively constant; (ii) In the sentences rating case, when the results of 101 Chinese were closely similar to Japanese, the profiles of mean ratings of each group showed similarity. Still, the mean ratings of the three Chinese groups were not only different from those of Japanese, but they were also negatively correlated. This study suggests that mother tongue has both promoting and interfering influences.
The word-association instructional strategy for writing compositions, commonly used in elementary and junior high schools, is based on the use of word associations. Even though there are reasons to believe that this strategy can improve written compositions, the evidence available is not as yet conclusive. One of the supposed merits of this strategy is the increase in length of the compositions. To further investigate the above findings, two groups of fifth graders, one experimental (N=30) and one control (N=35), were asked to write two compositions. Both groups did not differ in the first compositions, but did in the second compositions; only the experimental group was found to follow this strategy. Confirming the supposed effect of this strategy on composition length, the compositions of the experimental group were longer than those of the control group. However, the effect of this strategy on composition length in the second composition was limited only to those experimental subjects whose first composition was relatively short.
The self-focus theory of depression (Ingram, 1990) predicts that the depressives remain self-focused when the external environment changed as compared with the nondepressives. Fifty-three male students participated in the following experiment. They were administered a self-rating depressive scale. About half of the subjects were heightened self-focused attention whereas the other half of the subjects were not. All subjects were instructed to solve tasks that required much attention. The results generally supported the hypothesis: (a) among subjects who were heightened selffocused attention, the depressives solved less tasks than the nondepressives; and (b) during the task-solving, the depressives focused more attention on themselves than the nondepressives did. On the other hand, among the subjects not showing heightened self-focused attention, the above mentioned differences were not found. The role of the self-focused attention in maintenance of depression was discussed.
Many learners have difficulty in recognizing long vowels (LVs) and double consonants (DCs) in Japanese language. The purposes of this study are to investigate the characteristics of auditory perception of LVs and DCs in Japanese natives and to compare them with those of Chinese students. In the experiment I, 52 Japanese subjects were asked to judge 712 stimuli (human voices processed by a time expansion technique) whether they included LVs or DCs. The results show the threshold values are proportional to the speech speed and their judgements are the stablest in the range of natural speed. In the experiment II, threshold values were measured by the method of limits for four Japanese natives, four Chinese experts in Japanese language, and four Chinese novices. Threshold values in ascending series are longer than those in descending series for Japanese natives and Chinese novices, while the reverse is true for Chinese experts. This result suggests that Chinese experts use the different strategy in perceiving LVs and DCs to attain the same level of performance as Japanese natives.
On the basis of the bilingual dual coding theory, two experiments were carried out to investigate the retrieval processes of second language (L2) words in L2 learners. In Experiment 1, three models of word-memory were constructed in relation to encoding processes of L2 words, and three hypotheses of retrieval routes of L2 words developed from the three models were evaluated. In Experiment 2, it was examined by using the results of Experiment 1 whether the retrieval routes of L2 words were different in relation to levels of L2 proficiency. Both experiments adopted response times to 4 tasks as a measure, namely, translating first language (L1) word into L2 word, picture naming in L2 word, reading Ll word, and picture naming in Li word. The results of Experiment 1 showed that patterns of response times were consistent with three hypotheses. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the retrieval processes of L2 words in an advanced class were different from those in a beginning and an intermediate class.
Guthrie's findings (1967) were not duplicated in Matsuura (1970) and Morimasa et al (1982) where Japanese subjects learned rules in anagram tasks similar to those used in the Guthrie study. The present author assumed that the anagrams used in the latter studies were inappropriate for Japanese subjects and that is what produced the contrary results. In the present study, forty Japanese undergraduates learned revised anagrams under four different conditions: discovery-, discovery-and-expositoryinstruction-, expository-instruction-and-examples-, and control-conditions. The results were basically the same as in the Guthrie study. As predicted, discovery learning produced better transfer than expository instruction, while it provided little benefit for tasks that could be completed only by applying learned rules.
Four-year-old and 5-year-old children and college students were assigned to positive information (PI) or negative information (NI) conditions. The PI group was given the story including positive event (Tomoko helped her mother with the table and was given a candy) and NI group was given the story including negative event (Tomoko helped her mother preparing the table, but she was not given a candy). Immediately after listening to the story, children were given the reasoning test in which they were required to solve whether statements were reasonable or not. Statements were constructed based on the combination of extent of generalization of actor (moderate generalization, over-generalization) together with three abstructionlevels of action. The main findings were as follows: (1) 4- and 5-year-olds judged over-generalization statements as reasonable but college students did not; (2) in NI condition, 4- and 5-year-olds judged higher abstract level statements as unreasonable while college students did not. These results were interpreted as indicating that preschoolers tend to over generalize actor's information, and can't generalize moderately negative information of action.
This study investigates: 1) The development of children's interpersonal negotiation strategies (INS) based on the theory of Selman, and 2) the possibility of predicting the level of (c) selecting specific strategy (INS) by the levels of the other 3 social information processing steps, which are (a) defining the problem,(b) generating alternative strategies, and (d) evaluating outcomes. Two hundred seventy-three elementary school children, 1st to 6th graders, are investigated by means of a structured dilemma-discussion interview and a questionnaire on two hypothetical dyadic interpersonal dilemmas. The results of the investigation indicate: 1) INS level is found higher in older children; 2) the possibility to predict the level of (c) by the levels of (a),(b) and (d).
The purpose of this study was to clarify developmental changes of the conceptions (evaluations and meanings) and feelings about book reading, and to examine relations between conceptions, feelings and behavior frequency. Five hundred and six children of 3rd, 5th, and 8th grades answered the questionnaire about reading. Three major findings were as follows. First, all children shared the same evaluation that reading was a good activity. Second, three meanings of reading were identified: an exogenous meaning of “getting praise and good grades” (PRAISE), a cognitive endogenous meaning of “having a fantasy world and getting knowledge” (FANTASY), and a physiological endogenous meaning of “refreshing and killing time” (REFRESHING). Older children evaluated the cognitive endogenous meaning of FANTASY more and the exogenous meaning of PRAISE less. Third, positive feelings were predicted from 3 variables: grade, evaluation and FANTASY meaning. Behavior frequency was predicted from 3 variables: grade, positive feelings and the REFRESHING meaning.
This paper critically examines the widely accepted idea on children's spatial egocentrism. According to the idea which Piaget and Inhelder (1956) advanced, children adhere to their own view when they are required to infer a view from positions other than their own. For the purpose of the critical examination of the empirical validity of the “adherence idea”, the data used by Piaget and other researchers concerning children's performance in the “three-mountains task” are reviewed. I claim that those data demonstrate that children represent mentally a spatial array in relation to its surroundings rather than to their own viewpoint, which is inconsistent with the “adherence idea.” It is concluded, therefore, that children's developmental change should be understood as their acquisition of the ability to generate a spatial representation without relying on the spatial context.