In order to investigate how cognitive skills develop in the course of expertise in Japanese fencing, regular (expert) and substitute (junior expert) players of a men's university varsity team were compared on performances on (I) a paper-pencil test of rules and concepts (Test a),(II) convergent problem solving tasks such as to predict a scorer's winning trick from a video just before it occurs (Test c-2), and (III) divergent problem solving tasks such as to judge players' skill from their postures (Test b-1), and to detect defects in them (Test b-2). Unexperienced college students also participated in the experiment in part. Both the experts and junior experts knew the rules and concepts of Japanese fencing well, and their performances were much better than the estimated baseline. Their performances in convergent problem solving were also equally well. In divergent problem solving, however, the experts were better than either the junior experts or the unexperienced. These results suggest that divergent problem solving skills need a longer time to develop.
The awareness of one's comprehension failure has been researched on problem solving in mental retarded children. Past studies suggested that non-awareness of one's comprehension failure in a given ambiguous instruction, without investigating how much retarded children would understand ambiguous instructions. In the present study, the comprehension of ambiguous instruction was investigated on children with and without mental retardation matching them on MA. Each child was instructed to solve a problem containing an ambiguous instruction for problem solving. Retarded children at MAs of 7 years were unaware of the ambiguity ; they understo od the instruction in their own context. In contrast, the retarded children at MAs of 11 yea rs and non-retarded children at both MAs were aware of it, had ideas about the intent ion of the one setting the problem, and rethought about the task request. In addition, another instruction was presented to allow a second thought on the task request. Almost all retarded children showed more performance by means of such instru ction.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between adolescents' views on friendship and personality characteristics. Six hundred twenty (620) randomly- sampled high-school students completed a questionnaire. Hayashi's Quantification Method of the Third Type showed two more-or-less ind ependent dimensions for the views: friends as a source of conformity and preferred psychological distance to them. The students, in accordance with the above two d imensions, were classified into four types: independent, individual, surface, and close friendship seekers. Analyses indicated that these types were related to such personality characteristics as inferiority, family-adjustment, public self-consciousness, frequen cy of problem-behavior thoughts, and purposes in life. Surface friendship, with high conformity but more psychological distance to each other, might characterize contemp orary youth relationship in Japan. The students who viewed friendship in th is way, in general, loved family more and were better socially adjusted, but the males of thi s category felt inferiority and thought about problem behaviors more frequently.
The purpose of this study was to deter mine degrees of sibling resemblance from the results of longitudinal testing of intelligence and school achievement. Research data was obtained from ten elementary schools and one junior high school, all in remote areas. Yearly scores from longitudinal tests on the same children served as data for this study. Using the above data we were able to compare siblings of the same age bracket. The main results were as follows:1) Sibling resemblance in school achievement differed according to age;2) Intra-class rs between siblings tended to be higher for contiguous siblings than for noncontiguous siblings;3) Sibling resemblance tended to be greater in verbal IQ than in IQ Performance. These findings indicate that nonshared environmental factors lead to developmental differences between siblings.
This study compared parameter recov eries of the following IRT calibration procedures in a two-parameter logistic model: (1) heuristic method which transforms biserial correlation coefficients and proportion passing the items into item parameters; (2) heuristic method which transforms factor loadings and proportion passing the items into item parameters; (3) MMAP method which applies Bayesian priors to traits and item discriminating power and/or difficulty; (4) marginal maximum likelihood method; and (5) pseudo Bayesian method. Numerical simulation studies were used to evaluate these methods for varying distributions of traits and item parameters, test lengths, and sample sizes. Fifty datasets were generated for each of the combinations of factors. All these methods produced estimates of essentially equivalent accuracy when the distribution of taits was normal, although pseudo Bayesian and MMAP method produced more precise estimates than other methods when the distribution of traits was skew, particularly for longer tests and larger samples.
The purposes of this study were 1) t o examine the effects of the Communicative approach with explicit explanation of grammatical rules (the commun icative activity + rules method) on learning, 2) to investigate the effects of the communicat ive activity + rules method on learners' motivation to learn and their recognition of English learning, and 3) to examine the relationship between learners' aptitudes an d teaching methods: i. e. ATI effects. In order to investigate the communicative act ivity + rules method, the Communicative approach without explanation of rules was adopted as a control method. Sixty-eight sixth graders who had experience in lea rning English as beginners for six hours, were assigned to one of the two methods and were taught English for about eight hours. The results indicated that the communic ative activity + rules method produced no difference on academic resu lts, but it decreased the learners' motivation to learn. Also, the results showed that learners i n the communicative activity + rules method tended to recognize that in English learning, the grammatical rules was the most important. Furthermore, six ATI e ffects were observed between learners' aptitudes and the two teaching methods.
In 2 experiments, characteristics of reference objects for spatial reconstruction in children were examined. In experiment I, 57 4-year-old children were asked to reconstruct model layout after rotation which contained 3 dolls and a house of paper. In two cue conditions, one of the objects (a doll or a house) was preset on a response paper as a reference point after rotation. A long house in the middle of the layout was proved more effective as a reference object than a doll near the edge. In experiment II, 80 5-year-olds were made to reconstruct another model layout. A sq uare house near the edge was seen more effective as a reference object than a bird with a long trunk in the middle. The results were discussed from the view of children's fixed frame of reference, especially ‘topos’ of a house and affordance.
Since the National Language Research Institute's (NLRI) investigation “Hiragana letters read and written by pre-school children,” in 1967, investigations of pre-school children's reading and writing ability conducted among regions have been nearly non -existent. Accordingly, the authors investigated the actual ability of 1, 202 pre-school children in Tokyo and Aichi Prefecture to read and write Hiragana letters. Results show that children's reading and writing ability has improved since the 1967 NLRI investigation. However, according to the Ministry of Education, only 10% of the kindergartens teach reading and writing. So we conclude that there has been intentional early education in institutions outside nursery schools, kindergartens and the home.
An experiment was done with 12 persons with profound retardation in order to study expectancy with emotional expression to another person's appearance and acts. The experimenter showed his upper body through the window of the booth for 2 seconds following a chime sound (51) and then hid his body for 3 seconds (S1-S2 interval). He then presented himself in front of the subjects from behind a screen while calling the subject's names (S2). Sixty trials in 3 days were carried out for each subject. By observation of emotinal behavior, subjects were divided into three groups based on the latency of laughing or smiling. Subjects of group α showed laughing and smiling prior to presentation of S2, and one of them showed anticipatory deceleration in HR changes. Subjects showing emotional expression after presentation of S2 (group β) showed continuous HR deceleration in S1-S2 interval. Those who expressed neither laughing nor smiling (group γ) showed orienting response to Si. The results indicated that laughing and smiling prior to person's acts were coincident with expectancy in person with profound retardation.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between self-acceptance and interpersonal attitude. Self-acceptance was measured with Self Acceptance Scale (SASSV, Itatsu, 1989, 1993), and interpersonal attitude was done with Interperso nal Attitude Inventory (IAI, Kato & Takagi, 1980) and Interpersonal Relations Inventory (IRI, Fukuyama, 1981). Subjects were 391 male university students. Close relationships were found between many subscales and indices of SASSV, and subscales on IAI and IRI. Every subscale and Basic Trait (Secondary Factor) on SASSV had a close relation with different aspect on interpersonal attitude. Subjects who accepted their own self had a friendly attitude toward others. From the results mentioned above, a hypothesis was built up willing that each trait or factor of self-acceptance had a close relation with specific aspect on interpersonal attitude. DBS (Distance Balance Score), which was one of the indices of SASSV, was related to discrepancy sc ores on IRI. This result meant that inner balance of self-acceptance contributed to disparity between self-attitude and attitude for others.
Using a dichotic listening test, the effects of attention on the right-ear-advantage (REA) for word recognition in 4-6 year children was analyzed. In Experiment 1, ear differences for word recognition was measured under free recall condition. The results showed REA in all year groups and suggested that the degree of left hemisphere advantage for word recognition did not change over 4-6 year group. In Experiment 2, ear differences during attentional condition was measured with the same children as Exp. 1. Attention was manipulated by requiring children to report from left or right ear first. In 4-5 year group, REA was obtained in both left- and right-ear-first conditions, but REA was not obtained in left-ear-first condition in 5-6 year group. These suggested the difference of attentional effects on REA between two year groups. In Experiment 3, ear differences during both left- and right-ear-first conditions was re-examined, six months later, with 4-5 year group. The results showed that REA was obtained in right-ear-first condition, but ear difference was not observed in left-ear -first condition. These findings suggested the possible effects of attention on the dichotic REA for word recognition even in preschool children.
The present paper reviewed the findings about the psychological consequences of Tanshinfunin on transferees and their familles, and made suggestions for the future. Tanshinfunin is the relocation of company members, with their family left behind. Such study began in around 1980. Five approaches were found out in the studies: the family, the developmental, the industrial, and the social psychological approaches, and finally the cross-cultural approache. The family psychological approach had the lead based on the family stress theory studying the effects of family separation or father/ husband absence on family members' mental stress and family stress, and the moderators of the relationship between family separation and stresses. This paper also reviewed overseas studies on job-related family separation of air force families etc., though such cases might be somewhat different from the Tanshinfunin in Japan. The most important findings were that there were less findings compared with more data, and studies with clear-cut hypothesis must be emphasized in the future.