This study aimed at examining the relationship between identity status and interpersonal relations in late adolescence; it also considered the various types of identity formation psycho-dynamically from a viewpoint of separation-individuation process. The identity status in this study was based upon Marcia's popular concepts, and additioned to Kato's intermediate concepts. The interpersonal relatedness covered both the “approach” and “avoidance” dimensions of relatedness; that is,“dependent relatedness”,“intimate relatedness” and “negativity to relatedness”, in conscious relatedness materials by a self-report as well as in projective ones by Thematic Apperception Test. The study was administered to 157 male university students. As a result, each status had a distinctive interpersonal style; especially two intermediate status showed characteristic identity formations. Diffusion-Moratorium intermediate was distinguished by avoidance or unvoluntary commitment to closely interpersonal relationship as well as to a task of individuation. Achievement-Foreclosure intermediate was characteritic in its identity style depending on its belonging to concerned relationship or groups. The identity styles of the above mentioned types were suggested to prove closely relations to Japanese culture and interpersonal styles.
In this study, two experiments were conducted in order to reexamine Borke's task, based on the degeneration theory. The aim of Experiment 1 was to clarify the relationship among the three mountains task, Borke's turntable task and some subordinate abilities tasks. The result of this experiment suggested that Borke's turntable task was at the same level as the topological abilities tasks, but it differed from the three mountains task. In Experiment 2, which makes the turntable task easy, the object familiarity or the marker-object nearness were examined. Though all 19 children, aged 4-5, could solve the “near” tasks, some made errors on the “distant” task. The result of these two experiments proved that Borke's task did not measure the true perspective-taking ability.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of overt and covert self-instruction on the waiting behavior. Two groups of preschoolers, 3-4 and 5-6 year-olds, and first graders participated in this study. Two types of tests were administered to assess children's waiting behavior. In renunciation test, children were instructed either to wait to play with more favorite toys or to stop waiting and to play with less favorite toys. In transgression test, children were prohibited from playing with the favorite toys until the experimenter's permission. Children were assigned to one of three conditions: overt self-instruction, covert self-instruction, and control conditions. The content of self-instruction was to wait in a renunciation test or not to touch the toys in a transgression test. Overt self-instruction had effects on waiting behavior for all three groups, but covert self-instruction had effects only on waiting behavior in the case of first graders.
The present study examined the effects of generating solution in problem solving upon knowledge acquisition and its application. In acquisition phases, subjects were randomly assigned to generating condition, read condition, or control condition. In generating condition, subjects first generated solutions to a base problem and then received a feedback of correct solution. Subjects in generating condition were divided into a correct solution group and an incorrect solution group. In read condition, subjects were to read and memorize a story describing the base problem and its solution. Subjects in control condition were not presented with the base problem. In application phase, subjects in each condition solved either of the two types of target problem. The results showed that the generating activity had an effect on the incorrect solution group rather than the correct solution group, and that the subjects in read condition could apply the base knowledge to only the same structure target problem.
This study examined the development of the making of relationships with specific others in an autistic non-speaking child. Specific others mean attachment figures within the first year of a normal development. Case report was examined from 2 years 6 months to 6 years 11 months by mother's diaries, teacher's diaries and VTR records about activities in the nursery school for handicapped children. The results were as follows: (1) In an autistic non-speaking child's relationships with specific others, 3 levels were extracted: the intimate approach, the escape from anxiety, and the secure base to explore; (2) At the level of an intimate approach, the subject was aware of contingencies between the behavior and the emotion of pleasure-displeasure; (3) At the level of the escape from anxiety, the subject was aware of the existence of independent emotions and intentions of specific others; (4) At the level of the secure base to explore, the subject gave and took emotions and intentions with specific others. Concerning the viewpoint of multiple-attachment, the necessities of the making of relationships with specific others were discussed.
The efficiency of working memory capacity for 6 year-old children was measured with the use of a listening span test. Two types of listening span tests and memory span test were conducted to 73 preschool children. Listening span test 1 (LST1), which was based on the reading span test developed by Daneman & Carpenter (1980), required subjects to listen to a set of unrelated sentences and recall the first word of each sentence after listening to all the sentences. In listening span test 2 (LST2), a set of semantically related sentences was used. The largest set size for which the subject could recall was defined as the listening span. The correlation between the score of LST1 and LST2 was found to be significant. Moreover, correlation between memory span and the score of LST1 was shown to be high.
In order to clarify how fifth graders of different achievement level behave in math classes, two observations were conducted. In Study 1, one hundred and sixty children from sixteen classes were observed by time sampling method. The behaviors were categorized into individual actions, interactions with their teacher and interactions with peers. As results, the most frequent behaviors observed were “self-working” and “listening to a teacher” as categorized into individual actions. Although there was no difference in the frequency of task-related behaviors by achievement level, there were differences in the quality of behaviors by achievement level and sex. For example, high achievers engaged more in active learning, and boys engaged more in active learning and task-unrelated behaviors. In Study 2, the observation schema was revised so that it became more sensible to the relation between children's behaviors and teaching situations. The results were similar to that of Study 1, but low achivers showed more task-unrelated and passive behaviors to teachers when they engaged in the same task individually. The way teachers interact with high and low achievers were discussed, and some suggestions were provided.
The purpose of the present paper was to investigate the relationship between school adjustment of high school students and parental role behavior measured by Parental Role Assessment Scale (PRAS). PRAS consists of six subscales; Control (Factor 1), Acceptance (Factor 2), Separation-Anixiety (Factor 3), Facilitation of Independence (Factor 4), Assistance of Adaptation (Factor 5), and Confidence of Nurture (Factor 6). Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, it was found that (1) Acceptance had an influence on school adjustment (SA) of students,(2) Assistance of Adaptation (especially of father-sons or of mother-daughters) had an influence on SA,(3) Parental Role Behavior had greater effects to SA of male students than to that of female students when they were in the 11th-12th grade in November,(4) Facilitation of Independence had different effects to SA by parents' gender. In addition, two hypotheses were found by path analysis: (1) Facilitation of Independence decreased SA without Acceptance, and (2) Separation-Anxiety decreased SA without Acceptance and Assistance of Adaptation.
It is necessary for empathy not only to share feelings with another, but also to appreciate the individuality between oneself and an other person. The purpose of this study was to construct a questionnaire, Empathic Experience Scale Revised (EESR). Insufficient sharing experience (ISE) items in addition to sharing experience (SE) items were prepared, and 157 male and 145 female students were asked to answer those items together with LSO and Self-consciousness Scale. After factor analysis, the Scale of SE (10 items) and the Scale of ISE (10 items) were selected. Then the typology of empathy (Type double-dominant, Type dominant of SE, Type double-recessive, and Type dominant of ISE) was attempted. ANOVA by typology and sex on LSO-E (subscale of LSO) measuring the belief in individuality of human beings indicated that Type double-dominant differentiated oneself better from the other than Type dominant of SE. Consequently, the typology of empathy by EESR had a criterion-related validity while other results showed the characteristics of each type.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between alienation and the value system. Alienation Scale developed by Miyashita and Kobayashi, and twenty-six items measuring the value system were administered to 258 university students. The main findings were as follows: (1) The items measuring the value system were analyzed and extracted three factors, that is, the intention for human environment, for matter and machine, and for interpersonal relationship; (2) Correlations were performed between alienation and those three factors, and gave the following results: (a) Alienation had a significant positive correlation with the intention for matter and machine, and negative correlations with the intention for human environment and for interpersonal relationship; (b) Alienation had a significant negative correlation with Ss' cognition of social system's accounting for much of the intention for interpersonal relationship; and (c) Alienation had a significant positive correlation with self-social cognition discrepancy of the intention for interpersonal relationship. These results almost supported the hypotheses.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among self-images in the past, the present and the future related to the ego-identity achievement level. Identity-confusion questionnaire (Sunada, 1979) and Self-Differential Scale (Nagashima et. al., 1967) were administered to 205 university students, in order to measure “the ego-identity achievement level” and “the images of past-self, present -self and future-self (ideal-self and predicted-self were measured as future-self)”. Regression analysis was applied to the data between identity-confusion of High and Low group. The main findings were as follows: (1) The influence of past-self upon present-self was stronger in the identity-confusion Low group than in the High group; (2) The influences of past-self and present-self upon predicted-self was stronger in the identity-confusion Low group than in the High group; and (3) When the dependent variable was ideal-self, the multiple correlation coefficient was considerably low.
A memory for the surface form and illocutionary force of indirect requests was investigated under a condition where subjects watched a videotaped conversation. The results showed that the surface form of indirect requests was more rapidly forgotten than its content, but the illocutionary force was accurately recalled even 8 weeks later, replicating the finding reported by Sachs (1967) and some other papers. The factors promoting the performance and its process were discussed with reference to the difference between the time required to process indirect requests in laboratory settings and that in everyday situations.
This article is broadly concerned with the individual differences among language learners. In terms of particular content areas of Individual Differences (ID) research, it surveys developments in foreign language aptitude, motivation and affective factors, and interaction of learners' aptitudes and teaching methods which is called Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI). A brief review of theory of second language acquisition is presented, followed by discussions of research on aptitude. Motivation research is reviewed partly with regard to Gardner's research, followed by other researches including those in Japan. Finally, the review of ATI research are presented to emphasize attempts to investigate adaptive education to individual differences. The article concludes with a section on future issues in ID research in Japan.