Although it is generally accepted that human reasoning can be described as either inductive or deductive processes, this study proposes a new method of rule learning based on Popper's idea of “corroboration” as human reasoning process.“Corroboration” is defined as an application of a hypothesis (rule), which was induced from a few examples, to new examples in order to confirm the validity of the hypothesis. In two experiments, 170 undergraduates read one of three materials describing an unfamiliar mathematical rule and its examples. Each material embodied one of three processes i. e., inductive, deductive, or “corroborative” processes. In the results, those who read the “corroborative” material were better than others in three aspects:(1) They had more confidence that the rule was correct.(2) Their motivation for the application of the rule to other examples was well satisfied.(3) They could recall the rule better even a week later.
The purpose of this study was to clarify developmental changes of self-disgust during adolescence. One hundred and twenty-three adolescents described their experiences of self-disgust, and a self-disgust rating form was constructed from the contents of their responses. A sample of eight hundred and sixty-nine adolescents completed this form; the adolescents included junior and senior high school students, and college students. The results were analysed by means of procrustes factor analysis. The main results of the second-order factor analysis conducted among the three different age groups were as follows: 1) Among junior high school students self -disgust seemed to be understood as one factor; 2) Among senior hi gh school students self-disgust was made of two factors: self-disgust to oneself and self-disgust regarding others; 3) Among college students, self-disgust was understood as three factors: lack of self-confidence, difficulty of self-control, and insufficient self-understanding.
This study examined the flexibility of conceptual knowledge in classifying natural common objects. In experiment 1, coneptual classification behavior in children aged 4, 5, and 7 was investigated by triadic technique and free sorting method which have been used in previous research. The results indicated there was no significant increase in conceptual classification with age but slightly increasing tendency. In Experiment 2, in contrast to the experimental paradigm of previous research, the demand of classification bases were clarified and changed by each trial. Classification bases consisted of conceptual, thematic, and perceptual relation between objects. Subjects were asked to classify the objects according to the demanded relation which was shown by exemplars. Seven-year-olds produced more appropriate responses to the demand of the conceptual and perceptual relation than 4-and 5-year-olds and consistently high levels appropriate response regardless of the variation of demanded relation. These findings suggest that older children are more flexible in using their conceptual knowledge. However, younger children have a stronger tendency to depend on thematic relation for grouping objects.
The main purpose of this study was to examine how the differences of contribution influenced the task perception and person perception, when subjects failed at a cooperative task. The second purpose was to examine the correlation between the changes of four variables of personal traits and the causal attribution, and the contribution to the task. The subjects were 36 undergraduate and graduate females. Two students made a pair and were to guess together the shape of the figure under the panel. Three experimental conditions were made, and students were randomly divided into one of the conditions. In the E condition, the contribution of two students of a pair were at the same level. A student in the H condition made a pair with a student in the L condition. Students of the H condition had a higher contribution than students of the L condition. The main findings were as follows: the perceptions of task and partners, and causal attribution of failures were formed differently in the three conditions of contribution. In the four personal traits, the selfesteem variable was seen the most affected by the contribution conditions.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among Openness-Closedness of personality, the two phases of self (Connected/Separated), and the Self-Esteem in adolescence. Experience inventory, Connected/Separated-Self scale, and Self-Esteem scale were administered to 479 university students. From the analyses of the data, the following results were found.(1) Open-minded students (OS) had an intense Separated-Self compared with closed-minded students (CS);(2) Only in females, Openness affected positively on the return to balance of Connected/Separated-Self;(3) Whether students were OS or CS made some differences in the relationship between the Connected/Separated-Self and the Self-Esteem. a) Both selves equally tended to influence the fullness and the stability in OS. But in CS the Separated-Self tended to gain predominant influence on the fullness over the Connected-Self. b) When in CS the Connected-Self was weak or the Separated-Self was intense, they were apt to be in maladjustment of human relations. c) In the case of OS who showed intense Connected/Separated-Self, their Self-Esteem was reflected on the conflict of Connected/Separated-Self.
This study attempted to inquire into the nature of cross-cultural experiences of Korean students and how it affected their views about Japanese and other cultures. The respondents were Korean students, born in Japan, attending Korean Middle Schools in Japan. It was found that a great many of the students had close friendships and relatively high interest in communicating with Japanese. Though they appeared to have neutral views about Japanese personal characteristics, they showed relatively negative views concerning Japanese attitudes toward foreign countries and/or their citizens. Moreover, favorable experiences in interacting with Japanese were mostly related to the students' overt ethnic characteristics, such as their language and traditional clothes. These experiences were found to be of relatively high importance in predicting students' interest both in communication with Japanese and Japanese culture. Finally, it was found that the factor of having close Japanese friends was related to the students' interests in cross-cultural communication. These results have implications as to the importance of the appreciation of Korean ethno-cultural factors by Japanese, and the establishment of intimate cross-cultural relationships.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the issue concerning school counseling, from the mutual images for both teachers and psychotherapists. A questionnaire (SD method scales for two images, and free description questions about the school counseling), was administered to 247 teachers and 68 psychotherapists. The results showed that there were qualitative and quantitative differences between the image of teachers and psychotherapists. Moreover, a psychotherapists' image of teachers was onephasic, with a severe and authoritative feature. Teachers and psychotherapists had a common opinion: it was ideal to have experts in counseling in all schools. But, as a second opinion, while teachers supported the additional post of counseling by teachers themselves, psychotherapists thought that experts from outside the school were better. The results suggested that the differences of opinion depended on whether teachers and psychotherapists regarded the additional post of counseling by teachers possible and desirable.
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of information about features on categorization in young children and adults. Subjects were children aged five to six years and adults. Experiment 1 examined effects of three types of feature information corresponding to the basic, middle, and superordinate levels, on categorization. Children's categorization was facilitated by the given information on both the basic and middle level category, but was not influenced by the one on the superordinate level category. Adult's categorization was facilitated by all levels. Experiment 2 examined effects of concrete and abstract information about features both corresponding to the superordinate level. Children's categorization was facilitated by the concrete information, but not by the abstract information. Adults' categorization was facilitated by both types of information. The findings were discussed in terms of linguistic experience which young children and adults have.
The main purpose of the study was to investigate dimensions of behavioral characteristics in early childhood. Factor analysis of the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (Carey & McDevitt, 1978) and the Toddler Temperament Scale (Fullard, McDevitt & Carey, 1984) with a representative sample of 817 (RITQ) and 615 (TTS) Japanese children (RITQ: 6-month-old, TTS: 18-month-old) provided limited empirical support for its original 9-dimension structure. Of the original 9 dimensions,“rhythmicity”,“attention span and persistence”(RITQ and TTS) and “distractibity”,“intensity of reaction”(TTS) emerged as relatively pure factors. The other factors were named “fearfulness for stranger and strange situation”,“frustration tolerance ”,“audio -visual sensitivity ”,“tactile sensitivity ”and “sensitivity to food”. Comparison of these factors with other studies showed possibility of synthesizing measurement of behavioral characteristics in early childhood.
This study was to investigate the influences of mother tongue on a second language acquisition. In survey I, three Chinese groups who had been learning Japanese for different periods and one Japanese group were asked:(i) to choose the appropriate imperative voice markers, and (ii) to rate the naturalness of the Japanese imperative sentences. In survey II, a fourth Chinese group was asked to rate the naturalness of Chinese sentences which were translated from the Japanese sentences in Survey I. The main results were:(i) the error rate in imperative voice markers decreased as the learning years increased while ratings of naturalness remained relatively constant;(ii) in the sentence rating case, when the results of the fourth Chinese group was close to the Japanese group, all five groups were positively correlated. On the contrary, the rating value of the first three Chinese groups was not positively correlated with the fourth Chinese group and nothing related to the Japanese group, but more errors were observed. This study suggested that mother tongue had both promoting and interfering influences.
In the research field called “theory of mind”, recent researchers focused on the issue of how preschool children would understand their “mental world” including mental states of objects as well as mental states of human beings. The mental states could be distinguished from the real states and could be changed in various ways regardless of their real states. Particularly in the case of the mental states of human beings the states have causal function in which an event would bring about a mental state; then the mental state bringing about another event. Thus, the mental world of preschool children could be considered as having three aspects: a mental state distinguished from the real state, a mental state as a consequence of an event, and a mental state as a cause of an event. The present article reviewed the research literature on the above three aspects of mental world of preschool children and some possible directions for future research were suggested.
Most of us would agree that intrinsic motivation is one of the most important concepts in educational practice. Unfortunately, however, as some researchers have suggested, the concept of intrinsic motivation is so ambiguous that it is very difficult to distinguish it from similar motivational concepts such as the Origin-Pawn and Locus of Control conceptualizations. The purpose of this paper is to make the concept clear by considering trends in conceptualizations of and studies on intrinsic motivation from historical point of view. It is found that the main issue of the studies shifted from “cognitive motivation”(what makes tasks interesting) to “undermining and enhancing effects” of interpersonal and evaluative variables. It is concluded that intrinsic motivation is defined as a motivational state in which learning is undertaken for its own sake and that the mastery orientation and autonomy are its essential components.