Two experiments investigated the role of goal-related properties in analogical problem-solving. In Experiment 1, 48 undergraduates first read a story and then attempted to solve a transfer problem. Both the story and the problem were analogous to Duncker's (1945) radiation problem. The analogical transfer was facilitated when the base domain shared a common goal with the target domain. In Experiment 2,231 undergraduates first read one or two stories which were analogous to the radiation problem and then attempted to solve it. The previous studies demonstrated that transfer was facilitated when two analogs were provided prior to solving a target problem. It is generally presumed that the effectiveness of two analogs is due to schema-induction. This experiment demonstrated that transfer could not be facilitated by two analogs unless the goal was shared by two analogs and a target problem. Namely, the results indicate that (1) when two analogs do not share a common goal, a schema can not be induced, and (2) when a schema does not share a common goal with a target problem, transfer can not be facilitated. These experiments suggest that goal -related properties play an important role in analogical problem-solving.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the sex of a partner and the type of toys on preschool age children's behavior during dyadic play interactions. Fifty-one preschoolers paired with a same-sex peer or a cross-sex peer were observed when they were playing with one of three types of toys: masculine-typed, feminine-typed, and neutral toys. The results indicated that the sex of a partner influenced children's behavior during play interactions with masculine-typed or feminine-typed toys in several points. Children, for example, shared masculine-typed or feminine-typed toys when they were paired with a same-sex peer, but when paired with a cross-sex peer, they would not share the toys. Especially, girls were found to be less active in their behavior toward a cross-sex peer than toward a same-sex peer. It was also found that children's behavior toward a same-sex peer was not substantially related to their behavior toward a cross-sex peer. Considering these findings, it was suggested that social behavior in children should be understood in relation to their interactive partners.
This study investigated psychological background for self-recognition need (Kamise, 1992) and actions of seeking information about the self. Two surveys were conducted and 960 young adults participated in total (655 participants for the first survey and 305 for the second). The results of the first survey showed that the confusion of ego-identity gave rise to the instability of self concept and invoked self -recognition need. The results of the second survey showed that the interdependent construal of self preceded the instability of self concept and was related to the arousal of self-recognition need. In addition, after their self-recognition need being raised, the participants initiated actions of seeking self-information. Moreover, both the interdependent construal of self and the tendency of dependence on others in decision making were related to the action of seeking information about self.
Mother-child communication style in preschool children was investigated. After shown two kinds of animated stories, which differed in their complexity, five and six -year-old children explained their contents to their mothers. Adult dyads also performed the same task. Mothers talked much more than adult listeners, and the mother -child dyads frequently took turns. Mothers not only simply drew their children's utterances, but they made many questions to clarify them. These communication styles were quite similar in both stories. In spite of their efforts to understand, the mothers failed to construct coherent stories from their children's explanations in a complicated story. The conditions restricting the success of mother-child communications were discussed.
The present study was designed to investigate developmental changes of self-regulation in preschool children. Seventy-five nursery school children of 4, 5, 6-year-old (41 boys and 34 girls) were required to answer a set of questions as to how they would feel and behave when they were provoked by their peers. The variables manipulated were the subjects' familiarity with their peers and uncomfortability of the conflicting situations. The results indicated that the quality of self-assertive strategy changes with age from egoistic responses to social responses. It was also found that the development of the self-assertive strategy chosen varied according to the subjects' famiriarity with their peers and the uncomfortability of the conflicting situations. Implications of these findings were discussed in terms of the development of social cognition.
The purpose of this study is to investigate, in a certain city, the actual number and incidence ratio of long absence and school non-attendance on the basis of cumulative guidance records over a 3-year period of all children, in elementary and junior high schools, who were absent from school for more than thirty days in one school year. The results were as follows: from 1989 to 1991, in total, the incdence ratios of long absence were 1.64%, 1.64%, 1.62% and those of school non-attendance were 0.93%, 0.95%, 0.95% respectively. It was revealed that the ratios of long absence in junior high schools was higher compored to those in elementary schools being caused by an increase in school non-attendance. And it was evidently confirmed that the large number of school non-attendance in this investigation compared to the “reluctance to go to school” in the report of Ministry of Education was caused by an ambiguous definition of the term.
This research examined children's perceptions of junior high school (JHS) and their adaptation to JHS. In the first study, the structure of children's (N=420) expectations and worries about JHS was demonstrated to be five-dimensional by a factor-analytic procedure: (1) worries about interpersonal relationships,(2) expectations about interpersonal relationships and school work,(3) expectations and worries about club activities,(4) worries about school work, and (5) desires for freedom. The levels of expectations were higher than those expected from a previous research. The results also showed that club activities play an important role in children's perceptions of JHS. In the second study, part of the subjects (N=115) in the first study was tested again at the ninth month after transferring to JHS. Cluster analysis applied to them identified four subgroups showing different patterns of expectations and worries, as well as adaptation to JHS environment. One of the four subgroups, which showed high level of expectations in general and low level of worries about interpersonal relationships, was suggested to be most adaptable to JHS.
The purpose of this study was to construct two Japanese language ability scales, namely, vocabulary and Chinese character recognition, at senior high school level. Four tests were constructed from the original items and administered to about 27,000 Japanese high school students for each scale. The statistical item analysis showed that 242vocabulary items and 413 Chinese character items could be used for the item response theoretic analysis. IRT analysis of the item responses was carried out separately for each test and the estimated item parameters were equated utilizing the anchor items included in all the tests.
The purpose of this study was to explore the construction of the motivational structure in the classroom and to investigate how this structure would be related to junior high school students' relevant elements in actual classroom settings. Three-hundred and fifty seventh graders were given questionnaires on their perceptions of the motivational structure in the classroom, containing some relevant elements in students,(i. e., their perceived abilities, self-esteem, and causal attributions), and some relevant elements in the classroom,(i. e., students' perceived classroom culture, classroom aptitude, and students' morale). The motivational structure in the classroom was evaluated using a recognition scale, a task orientation scale, a participation scale, and a cooperation scale. This investigation showed the following results. The factor analysis revealed four factors of the motivational structure in the classroom as perceived by students. Each scale of the motivational structure in the classroom was correlated with relevant elements in students. Also, each scale in the classroom motivational structure explained each element in the classroom, particularly, perceived classroom culture, their classroom aptitude, and some sub-elements of classroom morale.
Effects of early social experience with peers and siblings on preschoolers' social competence with peers were examined, using quantification method of the first type. The mother's ratings for the questionnaire were used to estimate early social experience. Social competence was multidimensionally evaluated, and 3 composite measures (initiative competence, cooperative competence, aggression) were created. The following results were obtained: 1) Nineteen point three-31.2% of variance of each social competence measure was predicted by variables of early social experience. 2) The quality of experience with peers was more predictive of social competence in kindergarten, compared with the amount of experience with peers. 3) Early directive-directed peer experience was related to later initiative competence. 4) Early passive and/or cooperative peer experience was related to later cooperative competence. 5) The amount of early experience with siblings was related to later aggression. These results indicated that effects of early social experience were different for each of social competence measures, and that the quality of early experience was most important on the development of social competence.
The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the effects of The Grammatical Approach with explicit explanation of grammatical rules (GA) on the transfer of learning, and 2) to investigate the effects of The Communicative Approach combined with individual communicative activities (CA) on learner's motivation to learn, and their recognition of self involvement. Sixty-eight sixth graders, all twins, with no prior experience of learning English, were assigned to one of the two above methods and were taught beginning English for ten hours. The results indicated that GA showed siginificant differences in the transfer of learning in the area of written skills, whereas CA produced higher results in getting information through listening. Also, the results showed that learners of CA were highly motivated by the individual communicative activities and a deeper recognition of self involvement in learning English.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the relations between handwriting mode (tracing and copying) and handwriting pressure-velocity. In experiment I, kindergartners (N=20) and undergraduate students (N=20) were required to write a Kanji five times in each mode employing handwriting pressure device (TAKEI KIKI co. make). In experiment II, undergraduate students (N=20) were required to write a Hangul character (Korean), unfamiliar character to subjects, using the same procedure. The results showed that there was a significant difference in handwriting pressure-velocity between kindergartner and undergraduate groups with regard to the handwriting mode. Discussed on the basis of the model of information processing on handwriting behavior (Schmidt, 1982; Stelmach, 1982), the results of two experiments suggested that the tracing mode made the burden too heavy for the response execution stage in that model as compared with copying mode. It was concluded that handwriting in tracing mode was a more difficult task than the copying mode for kindergartners.