The present study had two purposes. One was to investigate children's and adults' informal knowledge of the earth's shape, especially on how they related the following two knowledges:“observational knowledge (e. g. the ground is flat)” and “knowledge from scientific information (e. g. the earth is round)”, both conflicting each other. A second purpose was to examine effects of instructions invented by the author on changes from inadequate into adequate knowledges. The results of Exp. I and II-A: showed that contrary to results of previous researches there were many children (Kindergarteners, 1st, 3rd-, 5th-grades) who couldnot relate two conflicting knowledges at all. Although getting older made more people able to relate them correctly if needed, for a long time they considered them as distinct. The results of Exp. II-B showed that in order for children to correctly relate these knowledges, it was necessary to instruct them explicitly on how to properly relate them, while clearly indicating the conflict between both knowledges.
The following study explored the cognitive appraisals as predictors of test anxiety and learning behavior, and the influence of test anxiety and learning behavior on school performance. 220 high school students completed questionnaires that assessed their (a) test anxiety (worries and the general tendency to experience cognitive interference in test situations),(b) cognitive appraisals of learning skills acquisition and learning behavior's costs on English and mathematics learning, and (c) amount of learning time per week, in English and mathematics learning respectively. Students' school performance were assessed by their score on English and mathematics tests. The results of a covariance structure analysis indicated that school performance was directly related to students' test anxiety and learning behavior. Students' cognitive appraisals of learning skills acquisition predicted test anxiety, whereas those of learning behavior's costs predicted the amount of learning time. Test anxiety was virtually uncorrelated with learning behavior. The implications of these findings for reducing test anxiety were discussed.
The present study attempted to measure a kind of writing ability. In order to reduce the individual variations of better basic language skills, a story production task was given to 153 junior and senior high school students. They were shown a picture which had been picked up from a picture book and were asked to make essays the picture would inspire them. It was required that they should make stories supposed to be read aloud to 1st grade children of elementary school by their mothers. In order to keep high quality of evaluation, essays were rated by 7 experts. The reliability coefficients based on the generalizability theory showed quite reasonable values. The path diagram showed that the effects of the basic language skills to the quality of essays could be ignored, but that the emotional factors on writing and reading, and voluntary habit of writing in a daily life had significant effects. Moreover, it was suggested that favourable experiences on books in preschool period had an influence on cultivating a positive emotional attitude on writing and reading, but compulsory trainings for writing had nothing to do with other factors.
It is often said that university students in Japan are comparatively passive and enervated. However both the peculiarity of Japanese adolescent process and the diversity of enervation must be taken into consideration. The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the meaning of the variety of enervation in relation to such adolescent aspects as pycho-social moratorium, mentality of student apathy and identity development. Passivity Area Scale, Moratorium Scale, Apathy Mentality Scale, Identity scale were administered to 522 male freshmen. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. It was shown that the passivity in the area of campus was more serious than in the area of class and study. From the analysis using covariance structure analysis it was found that the structure of passivity in the area of campus was different from that in the area of class and study in so far as it was related to anhedonia seriously considered an apathetic mentality and a basic identity confusion.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether peer status groups and subgroups differed in terms of loneliness, peer perceptions and self-perceptions of their aggression, withdrawal, and social competence. Five status groups of children (popular, rejected, average, neglected, and controversial) were identified on the basis of positive and negative sociometric nominations for 459 children in Grades 3 through 6. Of these groups, 200 children were selected on the basis of peer perceptions of aggression, withdrawal, and social competence to represent the following 8 subgroups: high-competent popular (HCP), low-competent popular (LCP), aggressive rejected (AR), withdrawn rejected (WR), aggressive-withdrawn rejected (AWR), high-withdrawn neglected (HWN), low-withdrawn neglected (LWN), and typical average (TA). Consistent with previous findings, the rejected children were viewed by peers as significantly more aggressive, withdrawn, and socially incompetent with higher levels of loneliness than average and popular children. Children in the AWR, WR, and HWN subgroups were found to be significantly more lonely and exhibited more inaccurate self-evaluations in aggression or withdrawal than typical average children.
The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of performance in arithmetic word problems. 210 sixth graders were given the word problems involving fractions, which had four sub-processes of problem solving: translation, integration, planning and execution. In addition, they took three tests:(a) existing knowledge test involving conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge,(b) intelligence test for both verbal intelligence and numerical intelligence, and (c) reading span test. In order to predict the results of four sub-processes, the following variables were entered into a stepwise regression: conceptual and procedural knowledge, verbal and numerical intelligence standard score (ISS), and reading span. The regression revealed that the procedural knowledge and both verbal and numerical ISSs mainly predicted the performances of word problem solving. It also revealed that the conceptual knowledge determined the result of translation-process only, and reading span was not a significant determinant. It will be necessary to search for other conceptual knowledge being reluted to the whole process of problem solving.
Bradburn (1969) indicated that psychopathology focuses too exclusively on the negative affect and psychologists ignore the positive aspects of life. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of the psychotherapy in order to increase well-being on subjective well-being modification with one of the psychotherapy so that anxiety would decrease. In the group on increasing well-being, happiness training program (Fordyce, 1977) was used. In the group on decreasing anxiety, the general cognitive behavior therapy was used. The result was obtained for the effects of the cognitive behavior therapy which could increase subjective well-being and could decrease anxiety. But the effects of the happiness training program were not significant.
Many studies have been achieved on the effects of social support on psychological health in recent years. Few of them, however, have focused their attention on the interactive influences by various support sources. Considering its possibility, this study investigated the effects of perceived social supports from family and from friends on psychological health in college students (75 males and 95 females). Data were analyzed through several hierarchical regression analyses with interaction terms. The main result was that males with lower level of friend support would be more unhealthy if they had more support from family although males with higher level of friend support would be healthier if they had more family support. In females, family support was generally protecting, but its effects diminished gradually when they experienced a broader life. Perceived support from friends had health-sustaining effects in both males and females. The interrelatedness of multiple support sources for the potential recipients of their supports and the importance of considering their interactive effects on the recipients' well-being were discussed.
Many learners of Japanese as a second language can hardly hear out the nasal mora sound /N/. This phoneme /N/ has allophonic variants, which appear as some nasal consonants and vowels. In the exploratory interview to two Chinese learners, the most difficult case for them was the realized sound of /N/ which was a nasal consonant followed by the same consonant. The phoneme /N/ is classified by a cognitive segmentation of the lengthened nasal consonant. In this experiment, the subjects were asked to distinguish /N/ sound in the given stimulus, and to measure their threshold values by the method of limits. The subjects were four Japanese, four Chinese-experts in Japanese and four Chinese-novices in Japanese. The result showed that threshold values in ascending series were longer than in descending series for natives and novices, while experts showed reversal results. This suggested that Chinese-experts use the different strategy in perceiving /N/ sounds to attain the same level of performance as the natives. It shows similar pattern to perceiving long-vowels and double-consonants.
This study examined the ability of young children to infer the personality traits of other people and to use information about these traits to predict their future behavior. Preschool children (three to six year-olds) and college students watched a series of stories on TV. Each of the character's traits could be inferred from these stories. The subjects were asked to infer each of the character's traits and to predict each of the character's behavioral reaction to a new event. The main results were as follows:(1) young children did infer each of the character's traits from a series of stories;(2) the ability to predict the future behavior of the characters from the character's traits inferred increased with the age of the children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the altruistic behavior which occurred in daily situations of a classroom. Thirty-six fifth grade elementary school children were observed for about 2400 minutes. Four measures of altruistic behavior were used:(a) behavioral mesure of altruistic behavior (observational data derived from natural observation in the classroom);(b) teacher rating;(c) self rating; and (d) peer nomination. The results were as follows:(1) Altruistic behaviors related teacher ratings and peer nominations.(2) Sex differences were observed. Girls displayed more altruistic behavior than boys. It was suggested that observational method of altruistic behavior was considerably effective. Methodological issues were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to classify types of subjects based on self-reports on a tendency toward speech; i. e., tendency toward social or private speech in everyday life. Two hundred and thirty subjects responded to a questionnaire made of 24 items. Two factors, i. e.,“social speech tendency” and “private speech tendency” factors, were confirmed by factor analysis. Additionally, subjects were classified by cluster analysis based on factor scores of 2 factors, and several types were hierarchically abstracted. In the upper level, 2 clusters:“high speech type” and “low speech type”, were abstracted. In the lower level, 4 clusters:“low social speech and high private speech type”,“high speech tendency type”,“high social speech and low private speech type”, and “low speech tendency type”, were abstracted.