The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitions of motor task by students in a teacher-training course and changes of causal attributions. Students performed “forward roll on the bar” motor task at a physical education class required in a course of study for the teaching profession. They were divided into an expert group which acquired motor task easily (N=44) and a novice group with difficulty in acquiring it (N=37). The two groups were examined in their cognitions and causal attributions before the class, and after the motor task acquisition. The results were as follows: 1) Cognitions of motor task were classified into implicit, formal, and explicit contents in behavioral category. 2) A novice group perceived more explicit procedural knowledge of motor task than an expert group. 3) In both groups, effort attribution was the most remarkable of their causal attributions after the task acquisition. These results indicated that students who took a professional class of physical education perceived procedural knowledges of motor task and recognized the importance of effort attribution at performing motor task.
The purpose of this study was to investigate in a supposed unreasonable dyadic hypothetical interpersonal conflict situation; (1) The effects of age, sex and interaction with another on interpersonal negotiation strategy; (2) Change of the effects of interaction with another on interpersonal negotiation strategy by sex and popularity. Two hundred thirty eight elementary school children, 2nd, 4th and 6th graders, were investigated by means of an interview and a questionnaire. The results of the investigation indicated that in the hypothetical unreasonable conflict situation; (1) Level of interpersonal negotiation strategy was higher in older children; (2) Level of interpersonal negotiation strategy was higher in girls; (3) Level of interpersonal negotiation strategy of pre-interaction with another was higher than one of post-interaction with another; (4) High popular children's level of interpersonal negotiation strategy was higher than low popular children's one in spite of interaction with another; (5) In both high popular children and low popular children, there was no difference on level of interpersonal negotiation strategy of pre-interaction and post-interaction with another.
Two studies were conducted to assess children's loneliness, aggression, withdrawal, and social competence associated with peer rejection across a 1-year period. At the first assessment, sixty 4-year-olds (Study I) and fifty -nine 5-year olds (Study II) were administered measures of positive and negative sociometric nominations and peer behavioral assessments of aggression, withdrawal, and social competence. At the second assessment one year later, all measures were repeated with the addition of a self-report measure of loneliness. Social status groups of popular (P), rejected (R), average (A), neglected (N), and controversial (C) children were identified each year. Children of the R 2 group who were rejected by peers at both the first and the second assessment were more likely to be aggressive and socially incompetent, and reported higher levels of loneliness than children of other groups in both of two studies. These findings suggested the possibility that chronicity of peer rejection increased loneliness and aggression, and retarded the development of social competence in young children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective teaching strategies to reform learners' erroneous laws, called Fu's. One hundred eighty undergraduate subjects had a few ru's on buoyancy. Four groups called A (GA), B (GB), C (GC) and D (GD) were formed. GA were asked to solve the problems with estimates of solving based on the relevant ru's and to judge before reading the text of the nature of buoyancy, what laws they had used on that occasion. After reading the text, they were imposed to rate the understanding and unexpectedness on the content of the text, and to take the post-test for an evaluation of reform of ru's. GB were given the same tasks as GA except the judgement task. GC were not given any task before reading, and GD were given the post-test only. In the post-test, GA and GB made better marks than the others. But the law acquired by GA showed a tendency to become refined in comparison with GB. These results corresponded with the difference of the unexpectancy rating values between the two.
The purpose of this paper was to reveal internal conversation process between native speaker/nonnative speaker. In order to investigate internal conversation process, 53 items concerning conversation rules were collected from 6 graduate students. 103 volunteers who taught Japanese language were asked to rate the importance of each item in three given situations; 1) conversation with a Japanese for entertainment, 2) conversation with Japanese language learners (in Japanese language) for entertainment, and 3) conversation with Japanese language learners (in Japanese language) for Japanese language practice. By factor analysis of the rating scores, 7 conversation rules were identified. The results of ANOVA of mean factor score indicated that the importance of each rule varied with social context: (a) goal of conversation,(b) Japanese language proficiency of learners and (c) length of Japanese language teaching.
This study was conducted to determine whether Japanese preschoolers could distinguish between the case particles -o and -ni in Object-Action sentences. Case particles are post-positioned case markers. They are syntactic cues of Japanese sentence comprehension: -O indicates Objective, while -ni indicates Goal case. On acting out tasks, 3-year-old children could not distinguish between -o and -ni, tending to comprehend as if they were all -o, which shows they considered the object word in those sentences as Objective case. Five-year-olds could distinguish between them on these tasks. But on verbal tasks where children were to respond verbally to Objective(-o)-questions and Goal(-ni)-questions after watching the E act out the sentences of [Agent +Objective+Goal+Action], even 5-year-olds could not respond correctly to the Goal-questions. This showed their inability to select Goal case from those sentences because of its serial position, despite their ability to differentiate between the two case particles.
Various resources can be used to prevent from forgetting things: for example, habitual actions to use external memory devices, metamemory knowledge of external memory devices, script knowledge for planning, and others' aids. The availability of the resources is not equal for anyone, however. The purpose of the present study was to examine developmental changes in contents of the available resources and the relationships among the resources for elementary school children in their homes. The questionnaires concerning the resources were administered to seventy second graders, sixty-six fourth graders, seventy-one sixth graders, and their parents. As results, the children's knowledge increased with grades, while parental aids decreased with grades. Significant (marginally significant) correlation between children's knowledge and parental aids were found in fourth graders only. Moreover, there was a significant (marginally significant) correlation between children's habitual actions to put the room in order and children's script knowledge in fourth and sixth graders, although differences in habitual actions among graders were not significant.
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a self-efficacy scale (SES: Sherer et al., 1982) using a Japanese community sample. The SES comprised 23 items measuring generalized self-efficacy. The SES and other measures were administered to a total of 1524 males and females whose ages ranged from 13 to 92. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted separately for sex and age groups and the factor structures obtained from these were compared. The results revealed a clear one-factor solution for the sample as a whole. A similar one-factor structure was obtained across sex and age groups. The SES was found to have satisfactory test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The correlations of the scores on the SES with other measures, such as depression, self-esteem, masculinity, and perceived health, provided some supports of construct validity. Some evidences of the construct and factorial validity of the SES in the Japanese community sample were found.
Proportional reasoning involves both qualitative and quantitative methods of thought. This study examined the relationship between qualitative and quantitative proportional reasoning of elementary school children. Two ratio types, velocity and thickness, were chosen. In the qualitative reasoning task, children were asked to determine the direction in which the numerator of the ratio would change (decrease, stay the same, or increase in value), when the denominator of the ratio changed and when the ratio was constant. In the quantitative reasoning task, children were given three components of two equal ratios and were asked to solve for the fourth component. These tasks were individually administered to thirty third-grade, twenty-nine fourth-grade, and thirty fifth-grade pupils. The results were as follows: 1) Qualitative reasoning preceded quantitative for each ratio type, while success rate on quantitative reasoning tasks increased with age. 2) Different ratio types, velocity and thickness, showed an effect only on qualitative reasoning in third graders. 3) Children's ability to reason qualitatively appeared to have a strong impact on their performance on quantitative reasoning tasks.
This study investigated the effects of similar experiences of a loss of independence due to physical disability on coping with ‘Uncontrollable Situations’, and one's readiness for sympathizing with others in such situations. The subjects were 130 physically disabled individuals (PDI) and 126 normal individuals (NI). The investigation consisted of a questionnaire on their sense of reality and sympathy with others in such situations, and a completion of stories on the coping with uncontrollable situations. The results were as follows: (1) The sense of reality and sympathy was significantly more pronounced on subjects with a similar experience than those without a similar experience.(2) More PDIs with a similar experience chose an outcome where the story's protagonist continued to live alone despite the difficulties while fewer NIs with similar experiences would have selected the same.(3) Less PDI with a similar experience had emotional coping whereas more NIs with a similar experience had such a coping. These results suggested that a similar experience lead to an enhanced sense of reality and sympathy toward the difficulty of living alone.
This paper elucidates the difference between the fathers' care of children in single income families and double income families, and the relationships between the fathers' care of children and their social adaptability. Subjects consist of members of single income families and double income families. Both families are unclear ones. Children are of the pre-school age. Major results are as follows: 1) The fathers of double income families tend to participate more in the care of their sons than the fathers of single income families. The fathers of single income families tend to participate more in the care of their daughters than the fathers of double income families; 2) Home discipline by the fathers is related to their sons' social adaptability from 1 to 3 years of age in double income families, and it is related to social adaptability of the sons and daughters aged 1 to 3 in single income families; 3) The home environment that is the result of the mutual understanding of the father and mother on the policy toward their children's care is related to the social adaptability of their daughters in the 4 to 6 year -old bracket.
The low reliability due to raters' subjective scoring is a matter of concern in a construct response or write-answer type test. For detecting items in which raters' scoring bias might exist, the applicability of the methods of differential item functioning (DIF) and the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure were examined in the case of a language test for elementary school children. The test consisted of a) write-answer type items requiring a phrase or a short sentence, b) short-snswer items calling simple words, and c) multiple-choice items. Each of the five raters scored more than three -hundred answer sheets guided by the scoring manual. Although the write-answer type test items here had no more significant indications on raters' differences than the other two types of test items, this study suggested that the DIF, and the MH procedure in particular, could be useful tools of item analysis for the improvement of testing containing subjective scoring items.