The purpose of this study was to clarify the sense of trust of high school students from identity developmental aspect. The questionnaire to measure sense of trust was developed as trust scale. It consisted of three dimensions: “distrust”,“trust for self” and “trust for others”. Eight-hundred-five high school students were administered the trust scale, SD scale for trust and distrust images and identity status scale. The result of multiple regression was that trust for self and for others were critical for present and future “commitment” of ego-identity. Compaired among four identity status, distrust was the highest and trust (for self and for others) was the lowest in identity diffusion. On the contrary, distrust was the lowest and trust was the highest in moratorium, the status of those with an active struggle to make commitments. Those results suggested that trust might be some kind of energy for searching one's capabilities. Although identity achievement and foreclosure showed no significant differences in quantity on the trust scale, their qualities had special meanings from the SD scale for trust images.
The objective of this study was to investigate developmental changes of processing speed of two different scripts, i. e., kana and kanji in elementary school years. In experiment 1, second and sixth grade children, and adults performed Stroop task, in which color words written in kana and kanji scripts were used as disturbing stimuli. Interference in kana script was bigger than in kanji for second grade children, but it showed about the same amount of interference between kana and kanji in the other two groups. In experiment 2, fourth grade children performed Stroop task, but this time, they were divided into two subgroups according to their knowledge of kanji letters. The result of good kanji group was similar to that of the sixth grades in exp. 1, although the poor kanji group showed similar performance as the second grades. These results showed that semantic processing speed of kanji would catch up with kana through elementary school years. Finally, the relationship between the semantic processing of kana and kanji in Stroop task and processing speed while reading sentences written by them was discussed.
This study attempted to investigate the nature of Korean youths' ethnic identity by asking the choice of names in varieties of socio-cultural and interpersonal situations. Respondents were 93 Korean students, born in Japan, attending Japanese colleges, and participating in a meeting held by a Korean association at the time of the survey. The results showed that while approximately a quarter of the respondents chose only their Korean names (type I), the rest chose their Korean names with Japanese pronunciation (type II), or Japanese names (type III) along with their Korean names depending on the situation. The choice of names was related to psychololgical conflicts felt in a given situation: They tended to choose the name that caused less conflicting feelings. Their fundamental ethnic identity appeared strong regardless of the different types of the use of names although the maintenance of their ethno-cultural factors was the weakest among those occasionally choosing Japanese names. The results were discussed in relation to socio-cultural and interpersonal nature of identity, and the concept of situational shifting of ethnic identity was introduced.
This study's purpose was to examine effects of achievement goal orientations on problem solvings in classroom settings along Dweck (1986)'s model. In a pilot study, scales for measuring achievement goal orientations in arithmetic were constructed. Then they were known as highly reliable and valid. In the main experiment, 113 6th grade-children answered scales for measuring achievement goal orientation in arithmetic. Operated on high/low self-efficacy, subjects solved word problems. The results were as follows; 1) learning goal had positive effects on problem solvings; 2) performance goal×self-efficacy interaction had negative effects on problem solvings; 3) but controlled intelligence score, performance goal×self-efficacy interaction showed no significant effects on problem solvings. Finally, unsolving problems were discussed.
The representational structure of numbers in children's mental addition was investigated in this study. First- and fourth-grade children solved the addition problems in which the sum of addition was smaller than 10. The data on reaction times showed that the first-grade children solved the problems with 5 in either of the two addends faster than the problems without 5 in both addends. Furthermore, reaction times showed that the addition problems with the sum of 10 took less time to solve than the problems in which the sum was smaller than 10. These results suggested that children acquired representational structure of numbers to 5 as a privileged anchor. The results were discussed in terms of mental number line.
The purpose of this study was to examine how to understand the task request on a problem solving situation in mentally retarded children (MA-7:5, 11:9). The cognition of task request was investigated through two aspects of directed and undirected task requests. To clear their cognition for each task request, insufficient instructions were given to children in problem solving situation. Retarded children at MAs of 7 years did not correspond to the latent task request but did to the manifest one; however, those of 11 years corresponded not only to the manifest task request but also to the latent one. Given more instructions in order to make the latent task request explicit, most of the retarded children with MA-7:5 changed in their performance.
This study was designed to estimate the effect of computer game on responses in the autonomic nervous system in children by using power spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) variability. We used two different games that contained a battled, excited game (S) and a relieved, mild game (M). The results obtained were as follows: 1) HR in S during game tended to be higher than tnat in M. An index of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) during game was higher than during recovery in S, but showed an opposite change in M. Therefore, S might induce stress response during game while M might do it after game. 2) HR during individual mode in S tended to be higher than during mode in playing against other player. 3) HR, SNS and an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) at 10th min. after game were similar to rest-level in both games. 4) There was positive, significant correlation between level of game master and PNS (y=0.091x+4.111, r=0.765, p<0.05). The results suggested that the responses in the autonomic nervous system in children during game were influenced by the type of game and the level of master.
The purpose of this article was to study the characteristics of apathy within primary and secondary school students and the differences between two groups in terms of apathy. In Study I, fifty questions selected from previous studies were administered to 569 primary school and 602 secondary school subjects. Through the statistical analyses, five similar subcategories were found for both primary and secondary school subjects. In Study II, an elaborated version of the questionnaire was constructed, using four items from each subcategory, and was administered to 1721 primary and 1396 secondary school subjects. A similar structure as found in Study I resulted, suggesting that the structure was reliable. Among the subcategories, primary school subjects scored high in “inadaptability to study” while the secondary school subjects scored high in “declination of motivation, and physical inadaptability”. Correlations between subcategories were higher for secondary school subjects than for primary school subjects, suggesting that apathy was becoming more general across the subcategories in elder subjects.
The purpose of this research was to consider the effectiveness of intra-individual evaluation (teacher's evaluation) on students' intrinsic motivation, and to compare the relative effectiveness of intra-individual evaluation, absolute evaluation, relative evaluation, and non-evaluation and to reconfirm the effect of the intra-individual evaluation and self-evaluation on intrinsic motivation. Two experiments were conducted in first grade classes of a junior high school. Experiment I demonstrated the effectiveness of the intra-individual evaluation on students' intrinsic motivation when compared with absolute evaluation, relative evaluation, and non-evaluation. Experiment II examined the effect of teacher evaluation, and student self-evaluation on intrinsic motivation. The results yielded significant main effects of teacher evaluation and student self-evaluation on students' intrinsic motivation. The results suggested that it was important to consider both teacher evaluation (intra-individual evaluation) and self-evaluation to enhance students' intrinsic motivation
The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' suitable attitude toward high school students concerning their career guidance. The teachers' attitude that had satisfied students in the past and the attitude and character that students want their teachers have when they ask for advice were both investigated. Based on this preparatory investigation, a questionnaire was made which contained 60 items. Subjects were made of 750 high school students in general courses and commercial courses. As a result, when the career guidance was held in high schools, teachers should have shown a more loving care toward their high school students. Furthermore, teachers should have better knowledge and information and should fatherly cope with students when they were at a loss concerning their future life. Especially, such fatherly behavior is important for the students in commercial courses during their career guidance.
The purpose of this paper is to review the advances and issues in test anxiety research from the point of educational psychology. According to Mandler and Sarason (1952), test anxiety considered a very important concept in educational practice is defined as “a task-irrelevant reaction debilitating in a task-oriented focus”. But as some researchers have already suggested, the concept of test anxiety is so ambiguous that it is very difficult to measure. Specially, there are main issues resulting differantly through the method of measurement. In the future, a study of the structure and developmental mechanism of test anxiety is to be emphasized, examining current test environments from the point of test anxiety level.