This research examined the acquisition of human/animal numerical classifier categories in preschool children. In Experiment 1, using an error detection paradigm, we examined the developmental change of the knowledge 150 children possessed about classifiers. Overall, even the youngest group of children (early 4-year-olds) were aware of the grammatical function of classifiers, but they did not know the semantic criteria for each classifier category until around their late 5 years of age. Experiment 2 examined 60 4-and 5-year-olds who had not shown the sensitivity for the semantic rule dividing the hiki (small animal) category and the tou (large animal) category. The results showed that the 5-year-olds only, could spontaneously generate the correct rule and apply it to new items only through hearing adults' use of classifiers. Based on such results, the interplay between the linguistic input, grammar and extra-linguistic cognitive categories in acquisition of classifiers was discussed.
One hundred and forty-seven college students and 50 sixth-grade children, each being classified into three groups according to piano-playing skill, rated goodness of five sets of four performances (original (O), monotonous (M), swapped (S), and artificial (A)). M was constructed by electronically equalizing the intensity of the sounds, S by swapping the intensity among a half of the sounds, and A by assigning the intensity to each sound according to three rules. Immediately after the initial rating, the college students were exposed to the same sets of performances and were asked to rate again and to choose from eight adjectives the one describing best each performance. Analyses of ratings and of adjective selection revealed that even the nonlearners could differentially and appropriately evaluate three performances (O, M, and 5) as to A, the better skilled, the more negative was the subjects' evaluation. Coherence of ratings across the five sets for best performance was greater among the better skilled and the older subjects. Stability of goodness ranking between the two ratings by the college students was higher among the experienced than the nonlearners.
The present study was intended to examine strategies of information search used in vocational decision making. Third and fourth-year undergraduate students were selected as subjects. Regarding the amount of information search, high and low group of vocational readiness were found to be different among third-year students who did not have any job hunting experience whereas no difference was observed between the two groups among fourth-year students who had a job hunting experience. With regards to strategies of information search, third-year students tended to use strategies-search within alternatives across attributes in first part of vocational decision making process and search within attributes across alternatives in a second part of the process. On the other hand, fourth-year students tended to search within attributes across alternatives in the first part and search within alternatives across attributes in the second part. Fourth-year students used information search strategies which were more rational and analogous to decision making in other areas of daily life.
This study examined the influence of husbands' absence on wives' psychological stress. Women whose husbands transferred with (N=180) or without (N=229) being accompanied by their families, completed questionnaires about stress reaction, childcare anxiety, children's problem behaviors, parent-child communication and fathers' cooperation with child-care. ANOVA analysis revealed that women who did not accompany their husbands (tanshin-funin) reported more stress reactions such as,“feeling lonely”,“anxiety” and “poor physical condition” than did women who accompanied their husbands (taido-funin). Results of path analysis indicated that (1) tanshin-funin wives' child-care anxiety accounted for twice as much variance in their stress reaction, compared with taido-funin wives', and (2) tanshin-funin children's early delinquent behaviors influenced their mothers' child-care anxiety and stress. In addition, tanshin-funin wives recognized that their spouses' father/husband role performance affected children's problem behavior and women's stress. These data suggest that physical husband/father absence does not have so much of a direct negative effect on their families' well-being, but physical absence plus functional absence lead to more child's problem behavior, and wives' child-care anxiety or negative stress.
The objective of this study was to investigate the acquisition process of reading ability during preschool and 1st grade years, especially, to investigate longitudinally the relationship between subcomponents which composed the reading ability. Children were tested about their reading ability and subcomponents of it, e. g., decoding skill and working memory capacity for four consecutive times: June and January in their kindergarten and June and February in their 1st grade. The following results were confirmed: First, the earlier they can read letters, the more quickly they can read words but not non-words. Second, the performance of listening comprehension task were explained by working memory capacity and vocabulary. Third, their reading ability was explained by listening comprehension performance and the efficiency of decoding words. The conditions which constrain their reading comprehension at this age level were discussed.
In order to investigate how images of teaching change in the course of expertise, experienced teachers, novice teachers, students who took teacher education courses at the university, and students who didn't take them were compared on metaphor-making tasks. They were asked to make metaphors on 3 topics: “Lesson, Teacher and Teaching”. Both teachers and students made almost the same amount of metaphors. In the contents of the metaphors, however, there were some differences between them. Many students had images of teaching as transmission and routine work, and of teacher as teller. On the contrary, many expert teachers had images of teaching as joint construction with pupils and managing unpredictable situations, and of teacher as helper and supporter. These results suggested that students had explicit preconceptions about teaching before becoming teachers and their images of teaching changed with expertise.
The purpose of this study was to construct a scale to measure the “Gender Identity”, and examine its reliability and validity. First, fifty-six items were rated by 184 male students, and fifty-seven items by 454 female students. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors. Three subscales were constructed for both male and female. These subscales were “accepting one's sex or gender”, and “identification with parents”, and “intimacy with the opposite sex”. Each subscale contained ten items. Second, Cronbach's coefficient alpha provided some supports of reliability for each subscale. Third, confirmatory factor analysis provided some supports of validity to create three subscales.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among career decision-making self-efficacy, vocational exploration activities and self-concept crystallization in career exploration processes. Subjects were women's junior college students majoring in infant education (79 students) and liberal arts (107 students). Data were collected on two occasions in the process. At the beginning of job-searching, the career decision-making self-efficacy expectations were measured. After seven months, the questionnaire consisted of two parts, the activity of exploration and the change in crystallization of global/vocational self-concept in their exploration process, was administered to the students. In the case of the students majoring in liberal arts, the career decision-making self-efficacy had a significantly direct effect on exploration activity, and the crystallization of global/vocational self-concept was predicted through exploration activity. On the other hand, the students majoring in infant education did not show that their global/vocational self-concept depended on a vocational exploration activity. Based on these findings, reasons why the two groups of students had different job-searching process were discussed.
Earlier studies suggested that a spatial representation of a child was initially in the form of sequential representation called the “route-map” type, and as a child developed, the representation was transformed into a map-like representation called the “survey -map” type. The present study aimed to examine this hypothesis from the following two standpoints: 1) whether the transformation occurred when periods of children's experience in an environment were approximately contemporaneous regardless of age, and 2) whether the “route-map” type remained after the transformation. Subjects were 7-12 year-old children, and all of them had 20 months of experiences in an object environment. The subjects were asked to place six photographs of a route in the correct order and indicate a target location on a map containing the other two locations. The former task assessed existence of the “route-map” type, and the latter assessed that of the “survey-map” type. The results suggested that the transformation occurred under the contemporaneous condition and that the “route-map” type still remained after the transformation.
The purpose of this study is to show two types of genetic effects-genetic main effects and genotype-environment (GE) interaction-upon several aspects of motivation as learning outcomes through instruction, using the cotwin control method. These genetic effects can emerge both indirectly, upon the basis of some preexisting aptitudes having been genetically influenced (indirect effects), and directly as some novel genetic architecture never been activated before (direct effects). Nineteen pairs of identical twins and 15 pairs of fraternal twins in the sixth grade received two different English teaching methods: the Grammatical and the Communicative Approach. Indirect genetic main effects were shown in most of the motivational aspects through some genetically influenced aptitudes such as general activity. The direct genetic main effects, most of which were nonadditive, were indicated, too. Marginally significant indirect GE interactions were found upon social extraversion, when the motivation toward a communicative activity was entered as a dependent variable. Finally, direct interaction was also found for general motivation towards English by means of intrapair difference-sum correlation.
In many areas of educational and psychological research, the t test is among the most popular statistical analysis methods. One of the assumptions for the t test is the independence of observations, which is important but rarely satisfying in real data. The power analysis for the t test also requires the independence assumption. The effects of the violation of this assumption has been extensively studied with respect to the probability of Type I error, but not regarding the power. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biasing effects of non-independence of observations on the power of the t test by means of computer simulation. In this study, the non-independence of observations is defined by the intraclass correlation coefficients within subgroups of observations. The result suggests that the magnitude of the bias can be considerable depending upon the population effect size, intraclass correlation coefficient, and the size of subgroups.