The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of the cognitive system which exclude irrelevant feature (i, e. relative size and color) as a criteria for recognition of membership of a specific category effectively in interpreting the meaning of “dog” and “animal”. The subjects were children aged five to six years. In Experiment 1, when the experimenter gave a novel label to two target dogs which were different in size and color, subjects interpreted the label as referring to dogs which were different in size or color from the target dogs. In Experiment 2, when the experimenter gave a novel label to target a dog and a cat which were different in size and color from each other, subjects interpreted the label as referring to dogs and cats which were different in size and color from the target dog and cat. The findings suggested that subjects excluded the relative size and color as a criteria of recognition of membership of a category in interpreting “dog” and “animal”, and the above mentioned cognitive system does exist.
The development in childen's perspective-taking ability was interpreted as the co-ordination of view and identity of objects observed by children. The subjects (37 in all) were children in the same kindergarten, aged from 3: 5 to 6: 3. Four tasks were completed. Mugs were placed in a box, and children watched them through a small window made in the box. In the pre-test, they looked at the mugs only through the front view; they were not allowed to observe them through other windows. They were asked afterwards to reconstruct the placement of the mugs on the box. In a post test the same tasks were performed, but this time they were allowed to look from any side windows. The results showed that there might be three stages: 1) 3-year-old children lacked the specification of objects' orientation, 2) 4-and 5-year-olds made ‘view-centered’ or ‘identity-centered’ responses, and 3) children over 6 years of age were able to reconstruct the objects as they were.
In former studies of academic achievement, it was uncertain how the attribution of failure to the lack of effort had influence on expectancies (perceived control). The purpose of the present study was to examine how the achievement goal in a classroom had influence on the relationship between causal attributions and expectancies. Four hundred thirty-eight fifth and sixth graders responded a questionnaire on the causal attributions, expectancies, and the perceptions of the classroom goal orientation. The results revealed that the expectancy scale consisted of outcome expectancy (perceived control), efficacy expectancy, and feeling of helplessness. And in a low helplessness group, the attribution of failure to the lack of effort was positively related to the outcome expectancy. But in a high helplessness group, little relationship was observed. Additionally, the feeling of helplessness depended on the perception of performance goals.
The present study analyzed the stress of 2599 male juvenile delinquents (aged 14-19) in juvenile classification homes all over Japan. It had three concrete purposes: 1) to investigate the relationships between daily stress responses and stress responses just before delinquent behavior; 2) to investigate the relationships between stress responses just before delinquent behavior and stress responses immediately after delinquent behavior; 3) to investigate stress process of juvenile delinquents. The result showed that 1) the degree of stress responses was changed by delinquent behavior, 2) the frequency of daily stressors on personal relations had relations to the life history of juvenile delinquents, 3) the degree of daily stress responses was influenced by the subjective stressors on personal relations, specifically relations with their parents, and 4) the degree of daily stress responses was also influenced by the social support of juvenile delinquents.
A multiple criterion decision making model for selecting universities/faculties was constructed by Saaty's AHP procedure. In order to investigate how students evaluated individually their career motives and candidates for universities/faculties, one hundred ten undergraduate students were examined using paired comparison questionnaires. A distribution of consistency index showed that more than 70% students made highly consistent judgements. Also, it was found that the final evaluation ranking of universities/faculties computed from this model corresponded mostly to what students had in their mind. Cluster analysis showed that the main motive related to career decision making was formed basically in terms of both ability and interests/concerns. These evidences indicated that this model will provide useful information in career choice and give some effective supports in career guidance at high school.
The purpose of this study was to construct the SELF-DISGUST SCALE. In this study, self-disgust was defined as a feeling that “whether in fact or not, one recognizes that negative feeling or negative phenomenon comes from himself and feels himself disgusting”. The elements to be contained in the SELF-DISGUST SCALE were: 1. aggression for himself, 2. helplessness or discouragement, and 3. self destruction. 21 items were selected. Although this scale had three elements, factor analysis suggested that this scale consisted of one factor. Reliability examined by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and split-half technique proved sufficiently high. Conceptual validity was examined in relations with two scales on negative self, self-esteem, and self-consciousness. By Pearson's correlation coefficients, SELF-DISGUST was negatively related to self-esteem, and positively related to other scales. These results showed this scale had satisfying conceptual validities. But private self-consciousness was positively related to SELF-DISGUST only in male. This unexpected sex difference and the one-structure of this scale were considered to contain much implication for further elaboration of a study on self-disgust.
In this follow-up survey, all children in elementary and junior high schools who were absent from school for more than thirty days in one school year from 1989 to 1991 in a certain city were investigated. The results were as follows:(1) In elementary schools, 1/3 of the students who were absent from school for more than thirty days in one school year in 1989 and 1990 were also absent from school for more than thirty days even the following year. And half of them were school non-attendants.(2) In junior high schools, half of the students who were absent from school for more than thirty days in one school year in 1989 and 1990 were also absent from school for more than thirty days even the following year. And 80% of them were school non-attendants.(3) 20% of the students who were absent from school for more than thirty days in 1989 were also absent from school for more than thirty days in one school year the next two years.
A questionnaire, made up of 59 questions, was conducted on 652 students in grades 7 through 9 in a junior high school. The questionnaire was devised to determine student reasoning for poor test results on term examinations. The results of the questionnaire revealed that students' attributions to academic achievements were based on personal causality and controllability. External causality and uncontrollability were not seen by students as attributions to academic achievement. By factor analysis, this questionnaire was divided into 4 subscales: (1) “students' method of learning and effort input”(2) “teachers' method of teaching and evaluating a test”(3) “testing conditions” ; and (4) “students' test-taking strategies”. The correlation between academic achievements and the subscale scores varied. Male students with poor academic records attributed their poor test results to teachers' method of teaching and evaluating a test. This correlation score increased with each grade level in males.
The main purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of evaluating student-teachers' teaching skills by self-evaluation and evaluations by the junior and senior high school teachers who supervised them, as a part of the evaluation system of the Teacher Certification Program. In the first survey, 211 student-teachers and the same number of school teachers responded to 32 teaching behaviour evaluation items using a 5-point scale. Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of five factors on teaching skills and two factors on tutorial attitudes. Norm related validity and reliability were confirmed in each subscale. The second survey was an attempt to make a profile and a radar-chart graph based on both self-evaluation and teachers' evaluations to provide feedback to student-teachers. Thirty student-teachers were asked to describe their ideas on the effects of these evaluation procedures in terms of improving their teaching skills. The adaptability of these sequential procedures of evaluation in formative evaluation systems was discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of motivational structures in a classroom of junior high school students on perceived ability in school subjects, self-regulated learning strategies, and achievement anxiety. First, a new scale of perceived ability in school subjects was constructed. The scale included five sub-dimensional scales, i. e., English, Mathematics, Japanese, Science, and Social Studies. Two hundred and nineteen junior high school students were given questionnaires on their perceptions of motivational structures in a classroom and perceived ability in school subjects. Each scale of perceived ability had a high reliability, and the factor analysis revealed a factor pattern of scale of perceived ability. The results showed that a particular scale of motivational structure in a classroom explained some scale of students' perceived ability in school subjects. Secondly, the relationship between motivational structure in a classroom and elements related to achievement motivation, i. e, self-regulated learning strategies and achievement anxiety, was examined. Each scale of motivational structure in the classroom correlated highly with students' self-regulated learning strategies and correlated negatively with achievement anxiety.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, causal attributions and learning strategy in an academic achievement situation. The Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, self-efficacy and intrinsic value scales developed by Pintrich and De Groot (1990) were translated into Japanese and administered to 251 junior high school students. On the basis of the results of the factor analysis, five learning strategies subscales were constructed: general cognitive, review-summarizing, rehearsal, giving attention and connecting. These subscales were positively correlated, and there were gender differences in three subscales, self-efficacy and intrinsic value. All these subscales were strongly related to self-efficacy and intrinsic value. The relationships among self-efficacy, causal attributions and learning strategy were analyzed, and the findings suggested that learning strategies had a greater influence on self-efficacy than effort attribution for their failure.
The term “Student Apathy” was originally proposed in US to describe the male university students who continued to avoid confronting their conflicts. However, it has been studied and conceptualized only in Japan. The primary purpose of this paper was to review the studies on the disorder of Student Apathy and make clear the points of controversy. At first, the trends in conceptualizations were considered from an historical point of view. It was found that the concepts suggested thus far, were so various that it was difficult to categorize the disorder as a clinical entity. Next, the studies were examined from a psychopathological and developmental point of view. It was suggested that the disorder level should be shifted from neurotic to personality disorder and the integrated concept should be formed to distinguish it from generally apathetic tendency found in adolescence in Japan, which should be searched as a background of Student Apathy.