The purpose of this study was to investigate the successivechanges of psychological stress in junior high school students at the point of entrance or promotion of grade. Scale on school stressors, cognitive appraisals scale, stress coping scale, and stress responses scale were administered to 423 junior high school students four times each month from April to July. The results of ANOV As revealed that, in general, students lost controllability for study in June and didn t feel much threatened by the stressors in relationship mong friends in July. On the other hand, in April, junior high school students tended to use “active coping” to stressors in study setting and relationship among friends frequently. Moreover, the results of path analyses suggested that stress responses in study setting were better predicted by coping behavior, as stress reponses in relationship among friends were better predicted by cognitive appraisals. Finally, the timing chosen by junior high school teachers to give advice to students and the way teachers instruct students effectively were discussed.
Many people nourish a misconception that vacuums draw substance into them. But vacuums can never draw anything. In fact, air presses substance. This study aimed at investigating why it is difficult for learners to rectify such misconception, by using specially devised questions. Subjects were undergraduates. The main results were as follows; (1) Once their misconception was provoked, most Ss unintentionally tried to modify their knowledge on the amount of air pressure in such a way as not to contradict their misconception.(2) Even when they were instructed in advance to use the relevant knowledge they had, their misconception couldn't be replaced by the correct concept.(3) But the reasoning process based on the relevant knowledge could be activated under a certain type of questions.(4) So we might infer that two contradictory reasoning processes could coexist in cognitive structure in learners.
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational processes of how social responsibility goal influences academic achievements. In the first study, social responsibility goal scale and academic goal scales were developed. Those scales were administered to 591 4th through 6th graders and the reliability was certified. The second study aimed at examining the effects of these goals on motivational processes and academic achievements. In addition to the above two kinds of goal scales, children's classroom behavior inventory and questionnaires on their interests and motivation to school subjects were administered to 238 4th through 6th graders. Also, teachers were asked to rate the strength of children's interests and motivation to school subjects, children's academic outcomes, and the degree of teachers acceptance of the children. A path analysis revealed that both social responsibility and academic mastery goals influenced academic achievements. However, it also revealed that only social responsibility goal was mediated by teachers' acceptance of the children. The unique motivational processes in the classrooms related to children's social responsibility goal were discussed.
It appears that students develop their motivation for self-growth through career exploration process. This study explored the relationships among career decisionmaking self-efficacy, vocational exploration activities and self-growth motivation in career exploration processes. Subjects were 224 women's junior college students majoring in liberal arts. Data were collected on two occasions in the process. At the beginning of a job-searching, the career decision-making self-efficacy expectations were measured. Eight months later, the questionnaire measuring the activity of vocational exploration and the change in self-growth motivation in their exploration process was administered to the students. These data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. The results indicated that self-growth motivation was directly predicted by the career decision-making self-efficacy, and two factors of vocational exploration activity, i. e. collecting and integrating information about self and vocation, and reconsidering one's own vocational exploration activities. The career decisionmaking self-efficacy had a significant effect on all vocational exploration activity factors. Based on these results, the meaning of vocational exploration activity in the career development was discussed.
In this research, an hypothesis that affects in learning behavior were composed of the addition of “behavior-related affects” and “result-related affects” was set up, and the hypothesis was examined. In a first study, affects in learning behavior by operating the “behavior-related affects” and the “result-related affects” were measured. In positive affects, the results supported the hypothesis, while they didn t support the hypothesis in negative affects. Moreover, the results showed that the shift from positive affects to negative affects was large in the learning behavior which children liked and the shift was small in the learning behavior disliked by children. In a second study, the teacher's understanding of school age children's affects was examined. The results showed that it was difficult for the teacher to understand children's ambivalent affects and neutral affects. And the results showed that the teacher misunderstood children's negative affects.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of the time perspective upon apathy tendency in an internal and external group of locus of control. A questionnaire of the locus of control scale (Kambara et al., 1982), experiential time perspective scale (Shirai, 1994), and apathy tendency scale (Tetsushima, 1993) were administered to 165 university students (78 males and 87 females). Multiple regression analysis was applied to the data. The main results were summarized as follows: (1) The influence of locus of control upon future time perspective (goal-directedness, hopefulness) was significant ; (2) The influence of future time perspective upon apathy tendency was significant ; (3) Between internal and external control groups of locus of control, the influence of future time perspective upon apathy tendency was found significant in only the internal group.
This paper proposes three scaling methods for qualitative three-mode three-way data. A real data set collected to investigate the impression of pictures by the semantic differential (SD) method is analyzed as numerical examples. The data consists of three modes ; raters, SD items and pictures. All the models classify I items into G groups to construct uni-dimensional scale in each group by introducing fuzzy c-means criterion into homogeneity analysis. In the first model, each scale score is expressed as a function of a design matrix. The data is analyzed assuming that scale scores of all raters to the same picture are equal. Appropriate scales are, however, not constructed, indicating that there are differences among the raters. In the second model, rank of scale scores is restricted to Rg in order to explore the differences of raters. In the third model, raters are clustered into D groups to find which raters are different. The selection of Rg or D is perfomed by means of increasing the parameter value until appropriate classification is obtained.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of children's ages and their age differences on ‘the objections’ between young children in a nursery school. Subjects were 14 children in a same two-year- old class. They were divided into three groups in terms of their ages: H group (four children: mean age 33.0 months); M group (six children: mean age 29.3 months) ; L group (four children: mean age 27.5 months) in May 1993. The data were obtained from the observations of free play from May 1993 to March 1994. The main results were as follows: (a) the frequency of objections did not change through a year ; (b) L group children tended not to object to H group children at first ; (c) but the peer relationships were gradually changing for the equality ; (d) ‘the situation of objection’ and ‘the content of objection’ depended on children's ages.
The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of “context effect” to the teaching method of Japanese classics for readers lacking proficiency in grammar and words. A total of 100 junior college students in two classes participated in the experimental teaching program. The teaching materials were: (1) a story of Edo period as the main material (2) a comic the source of which was the story as the contextual material. In the program, students were asked to read the comic and the original story, then were asked to answer the syntactical and semantical questions on the story. Each question was categorized 2 (context-dependent/independent)×2 (context-available/unavailable). The subjects' responses to questions on the original story during classworks, and their impressions of the teaching method were analyzed. The result was that the use of the material providing context was effective in order to assist subjects' reading comprehension of the original story. The result suggested that the top-down type of teaching method was useful to. novice readers.
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the structure and changes in the perceptions of student-teachers anxiety towards practice teaching. In Study I, 162 students rated the following: 49 items of anxiety scale towards practice teaching, self-efficacy measure (16 items) and social anxiety measure (14 items) for a verification of validity. A factor analysis of the anxiety scores of 49 items indicated four factors: teaching professionally, social interaction with pupils, personal appearance and physical condition. These factors significantly correlated with the self-efficacy and social anxiety measures. In Study II, 118 students rated twice the 49 items of anxiety in before-after their practice teaching. Analyses produced almost the same results as obtained in the first study. The four factor scores of anxiety decreased significantly after experiences in practice teaching.
This study aims at clarifying developmental changes of prehension during early childhood. Two hundred and twenty seven infants ranged from 30 to 69 months of age were asked to fill a circle with a felt-tip pen, and their processis were simultaneously monitored through four video cameras located at various position from the subjects. Reproducing the video tape, their prehensions of the pen were evaluated and were classified into seven different types. As the age increased, the infant tended to show “tripod grip” Upper limb-desk contacts were also classified into four different types. The more the age increased the more the distal upper limb tended to touch the desk. These results suggested that an acquisition of the tripod grip and a stable suspension made it possible to manipulate a pen effectively during early childhood.
This study was to examine changes in intelligence among elementary school children across different generations. The results of group intelligence tests conducted between 1956 and 1985 at 38 elementary schools and 10 junior high schools located in 7 separate regions of Aomori Prefecture were analyzed. Data were compiled from the schools Student Records which are considered as public records. The main results were as follows: 1) In the 5 concerned regions made primarily of agricultural and fishing communities, children's intelligence statistics up to 1960 were proved lower than average. However, between 1961 and 1970, the above mentioned figures rose dramatically and reached the average standard on the intelligence test. 2) In one urban region, children's intelligence levels were consistently higher than norm on the intelligence test regardless of the age group. No changes were observed between different the generations. 3) Children living in regions distant from urban areas showed a tendency to have lower intelligence scores than children living in regions closer to urban areas. Recently, however, these regional variations were found to be less pronounced.