This study investigated the effects of meaningful context on young children's memory performance and the development of voluntary memory. In Exp. I and II, 4- and 5-year-olds (in Exp. II 3-year-olds were added) were presented a set of items and told to remember them either in a direct lesson format (i. e., explicit memory requirement) or as part of a pretend-play involving shopping game. Older children showed higher levels of recall than younger children, and as an overall, the children remembered more in the game than lesson contexts. Moreover, the results of Exp. II showed that (a) children in pretend-play organized items based on thematic relation in a meaningful fashion,(b) especially in the case of 5-year-olds in shopping-game, the use of strategies (counting and rehearsal) were increased, and (c) the pretend-play (shopping-game) situation created a motivation for remembering or recall. These results indicated that preschool children memory performances could be facilitated by motivating contexts that provide meaningful purpose of remembering.
This study explored the acquisition process of movement sequence. Twenty-three female university students with no prior dance training watched a 1Os videotaped movement sequence as many times as they needed to produce the sequence perfectly. The whole process was recorded on videotape, and all the subjects were asked to explain what they had thought during the process. All the subjects were classified into two groups according to the time they required to perform all the elements of the assigned sequence correctly. Consequently, the “phased-achievement type” group showed a process in which elements were built up one after the other; and the “non-phased-achievement type group” showed a process in which the whole sequence improved gradually. Results according to observation on subjects' activities and protocol analysis were as follows: Phased-achievement type subjects were characterized by searching elements' details to understand them, and building up the elements which had already been understood. Non-phased-achievement type subjects did not divide sequence into elements, but picked up the information about movement flow.
This study developmentally examined the production process of constructing component parts in early drawing; the subjects were 1-3 year-old children. 91 children were asked to draw under four conditions: both no drawn contour task and drawn contour task given a circle for facial contour were conducted under human drawing theme (mother) and animal drawing theme (rabbit). 2 year-old children began construction of a drawing by drawing the component parts. The drawn contour condition had a facilitative effect on 1 and 2 year-old children, but no effect on 3 year-old children. 1 year-old children drew something inside the contour, indicative of primal component parts; 2 year-old children drew more pair representations, such as eyes or ears; 3 year-olds frequently drew by combining component parts in a top-to-bottom direction. The results showed that early drawing is developmentally constructed through the emergence and organization of component parts. These results were discussed with reference to the processes underlying early drawing and the account provided by Luquet (1927).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the successive changes of test anxiety in junior high school students from the viewpoint of psychological stress process. Scale on stress responses, cognitive appraisals scale, self-efficacy scale and coping scale were administered to 411 junior high school students 6 times: from 2 weeks before to 1 week after a mid-term examination. Subjects also completed the Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) to assess their trait test anxiety. According to the result of ANOVA on session, it was revealed that subjects who appraised the test as more threatening, used more coping, and exhibited higher stress responses before than after the exam. Self-efficacy scores decreased as sessions went by. Moreover, subjects who showed high TAS scores appraised the test as more threatening and important, and exhibited higher stress responses than those who showed low TAS scores. The results of this study suggested that successive change pattern of stress responses, cognitive appraisals, self-efficacy, and coping were important to understand the process of test anxiety in junior high school students.
College students numbering 206 were examined on their beliefs of the movement of sunflowers, and 112 students who had the false belief participated also in the experiment. The subjects were asked to read the science text which explained the facts that contradicted their beliefs in the following three conditions: (a) the photosynthetic rule was instructed, and the contradictory facts were referred to as examples of the rule; (b) the photosynthetic rule was instructed, but the facts were referred independently from the rule; and (c) only the facts were presented. The subjects were then put to some reading comprehension tests. The frequencies in the occurrence of belief-dependent misreading (BDM) on the tests were analysed. The following results were obtained: (1) there were less BDMs in the condition of the rule and example than in the other two conditions; (2) there were no less BDMs in the condition of the rule and facts than in the condition of the facts only. There findings suggested that the instruction in the relation of the rule and example was useful in order to avoid BDM.
The purpose of this research was to examine the psychological states of the victims of the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995) six months after. Assessment was made using a questionnaire consisting of PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) items from DSM-IV, items on emotional and behavioral coping and those on life stance and disaster consciousness. The results were as follows: (a) “Loss of houses” and “fear of death” had a great psychological impact.(b) “Attachment to family members” and “cognitive control” were exercised very frequently as psychological means to cope with and overcome post-traumatic states.“Talking-through” was also used very frequently and would be effective as behavioral means.(c) A large number of people accepted the earthquake as “a natural phenomenon”.(d) As to changes of life stance three factors emerged, i. e., an awareness of importance of maintaining usual life, a sense of helplessness and a pleasure-oriented attitude.
Recently an idiographic approach into a nomothetic method has been the eyes of the world. Higgins, E. T. & Endo. Y. are quite famous for stressing the significance of this approach, though Higgins' approach is a little different from Endo's: the former is seen as an approach that a person represents idiographic points spontaneously while the latter is seen as an approach having a person select his own idiographic points in some items given by a researcher. The former is called “inner frame as an idiographic approach” and the latter is called “outer frame as an idiographic approach.” The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between inner frame and outer frame as the base of factors regulating self-esteem or self-evaluation. At the results, both high-self-esteem group and low-self-esteem group can select many regulating factors through outer frame and are also easy to represent them through inner frame. Furthermore, regulating factors in ambivalent self-evaluations are also examined, and the relationship between inner frame and outer frame is eventually better clarified.
The first purpose of this study was to examine the difference of hostile attribution tendency between aggressive and non-aggressive preschoolers. The second purpose was to examine the effects of mood manipulation on hostile attribution in preschoolers. Aggressive and non-aggressive preschoolers were administered tests of attributional tendencies in hypothetical ambiguous conflict situations. After the test, the subjects had their mood manipulated by winning or losing computer games. The main results showed that aggressive preschoolers displayed more hostile attributional biases than non-aggressive preschoolers, and that both aggressive and non-aggressive preschoolers exacerbated hostile attributional biases under negative mood manipulated conditions.
This study examined the development of the sense of trust from adulthood to senescence. The trust scale and items measuring supportive feelings from families and friends were used. Using questionnaire and interview methods, data were collected from 892 subjects aged 30 to over 60 years old.(a) The results of factor analysis by age group showed that “trust for self”,“trust for others” and “distrust” were effective to understand the sense of trust not only for adolescents but for adults and elderlies also. The trust scale made of 18 items was reconstructed.(b) The relationships between the above three dimensions of trust varied with age. That is, correlations between “trust for self” and “distrust” proved to be negative in young adults, nonsignificant in older adults while positive in the elderly. On the contrary, correlations between “trust for others” and “distrust” were negative in adults and non- significant in the elderly.(c) Supportive feelings from families and friends affected mainly “trust for others” in a lifelong view. For the 50-59 years old, gaps in memory about the past and present supportive feelings affected significantly their “distrust”.
This study examined the errors of compare word-problems. 81 fifth graders solved the word problems individually according to a computer program. After subjects planned their solution, the computer asked the student to tell the reason of their plan. As a second task, the computer examined each solution, and asked the subjects some questions to investigate how they understood the problem in the case of an error. We investigated how they planned their solution from their verbal reports, and we clarified the part of the problem solving process where the errors were made considering their responses to the questions. We found that many wrong solutions were due to the use of key words such as ‘times’, and that many subjects misunderstood the structure of the problem. We also discussed the problems to design a computer-based tutoring system for word problems.
The tendency of emotional expression refers to the individual's stylistic features in emotional expression (e. g., intensity, latency, duration) and is considered an important dimension of temperament. Earlier theorists assumed the existence of a uniformity in these tendencies within the same individual across different emotions. However, recent research questioned this uniformity. This research was designed to explore the relations among these tendencies in the expressions of fear, anger, and pleasure in infants. Fifty 19-20 month-old children were observed in seven episodes of Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery to assess their emotional expression tendencies. A temperament questionnaire was also completed by both parents of the subjects respectively. The results were as follows: (1) almost all indices relating to the facial and vocal expressions were intercorrelated within-, but not across-, emotion; (2) the relation among composite scores of each episode was similar, but the scores of two episodes of fear were uncorrelated; (3) composite scores for different emotions were uncorrelated. These results suggest that different emotions have different expressional tendencies.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the validity of hypotheses regarding the encoding difficulty effects on a free recall. Subjects were required to judge which of two targets held a stronger associative relationship with a paired presented word followed by recognition and free recall tests. Two types of paired targets were used in Experiment 1: AA paired targets (associate and associate) and AN paired targets (associate and non-associate). Positive correlation was observed between a free recall and the mean clustering size. However, neither positive nor negative correlation was observed between a free recall and a false recognition as an index of elaboration. Three types of paired targets were used in Experiment 2: AA, AN and NN paired targets (non-associate and non-associate). AA paired targets were more recalled than AN and NN ones. Mean clustering size was highest in AA paired targets followed by AN and NN ones. These results were interpreted as showing that the organization hypothesis was adequate in explaining the encoding difficulty effects on an incidental free recall.