This study investigated the effects of various factors on the Asian students' attitudes toward Japanese people and other cultures. It has been reported that the visiting students' attitudes toward Japanese are significantly related to friendship with Japanese and discrimination. In this study, we approached the development of attitudes from the view of ethnicity. The following factors were examined: friendship with Japanese, favorable experiences concerning the students' ethnicity, unpleasant experiences concerning the students' ethnicity (discrimination), and respect of Japanese for the students' ethnicity. Four hundred and sixty-eight (468) Asian students attending universities in Japan responded to the questionnaire. The data obtained were examined by path-analysis. The results showed that friendship and favorable experiences contributed positively to attitudes toward the Japanese through the factor of respect for ethnicity. Unpleasant experiences had a direct negative effect on attitudes. Attitudes toward the Japanese were related significantly with attitudes toward people with other cultures. The importance of a host country's respect for the visiting students' ethnicity was discussed.
The present study examined differential effects of whole-class discussion begin- ning with a problem, with and without answer alternatives, on its developments and cognitive consequences in the case of adding fractions with different denominators; 289 4th- and 5th-graders from six elementary schools were used as subjects. Results indicated that: (1) almost all students with or without alternatives figured out the correct answer through the discussion before being given feedback from the experi- menter; (2) in the process of the discussion the students in Group Without Alternatives made more remarks including explanations, questions and counterarguments, espe- cially those about the correct solution than students in Group With Alternatives; (3) the students in Group Without Alternatives tended to perform better in the transfer test. The inferiority of Group With Alternatives in the acquisition of transferable knowledge was interpreted as due to the lack of effective division of labor based on partisan motivation where rival answer alternatives were easily refuted in discussion. Strength and weakness of the above two types of discussion and their possible flexible uses are discussed.
This study explored the structures of learning motives and strategies, and examined a model positing that motives affected strategy selection, which in turn influenced performance in English learning of high-school students. Six scales for learning motives were employed, which had been made through a classification of students' free responses. Correlation analysis revealed that the six scales could be divided into two groups, i. e.,“content-attached” and “content-detached” motives. On the other hand, factor analysis showed that learning strategies for English words were classified into the following three: organization, imaging, and repetition. The content-attached motives correlated significantly with each of the strategies, but the content-detached motives did not. Moreover, only the organization strategy had a significant effect on performance which was represented by three scores in an achievement test. That was consistent with theories and experimental findings in cognitive psychology, and supported the effectiveness of organization strategies in verbal learning. It was concluded that content-attached motives were needed to use organization strategies, and that the framework of so-called “intrinsic motivation” should be reexamined.
This study examined children's ability to learn the rule of biological mimicry as a method of defense and to transfer it to new animals. In three experiments, five-year-olds were asked to listen to a story that included the rule. They were then asked questions prompting them to relate the rule to one or two examples. The transfer problems consisted of a “method-problem” that asked a method of an unfamiliar animal's mimicry, and two “advantage-problems” that asked what the advantages of unfamiliar animals' mimicries would be. Major results were as follows: 1) The children who failed to relate the rule and the example couldn't solve any of the transfer problems. 2) Relating the rule and the example however, partly enhanced their solution. That is, their generalization of the rule from the example was effective only in the “advantage-problems”. Their derivation of the example from the rule was effective only in the “method-problem”. 3) Two-way relating, which involved both the generalization and the derivation, promoted solving both of the transfer problems.
Development of phonemic and emotional cerebral laterality effects in right-handed preschoolers with a dichotic listening task was investigated. Pairs of Japanese famil- ial names differing only in the initial syllable in different emotional tones were presented dichotically. While a right ear advantage was found in detecting a specific name, a left ear advantage was found in detecting a specific emotional tone. We found neither age nor sex effects on these laterality patterns. These results suggested that while the right hemisphere was specialized for mediating emotional prosodic features, the left hemisphere was specialized for processing phonemes as early as 4 years of age.
Work values among women college graduates (N=399) in their sixth to eighth year after college graduation were investigated. Approximately 70% of the study sample were found to be currently employed outside the home. Many working women were single without children, while married women with children did not have jobs outside the home. Although employment, marital status, and parental status were predicted to relate to women's work values, only marital status turned out to be significant. Married women placed a higher value on gender equality and family concerns than did single women. The relationship between individual job turnover and work values was also explored ; women who changed jobs were found to place more importance on intellectual stimulation than those who did not. In the analysis of future work plans, it was found that those who planned to pursue their jobs for a long period or to reenter the work force showed work value patterns significantly different from those of their counterparts.
The purposes of this study were to develop the Social Skills Scales at home (SSS-H) and the Social Skills Scales in school (SSS-S) for elementary school children, and to examine the effects of mother's attitude for child rearing on the development of children's social skills and sociometric status in the classroom. As results of factor analyses from data of 524 children from 4th to 6th grades, three factors were extracted for SSS-H: behavior to maintain relations, behavior to develop relations, and assertive behavior. SSS-S was composed of three factors: behavior to maintain relations, behavior to develop relations, and behavior to participate in relations. Five hundred sixteen children completed SSS-H, SSS-S, Tests for Relationship between Parents and Children, and the Sociometric Test. Results of path analysis suggested that mother's attitude for child rearing influenced the children's social skills at home, social skills at home influenced for social skills in school, and that social skills in school influenced for Sociometric Status. Importance of these results were discussed in theoretical frame-work of social skills training.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the independent and interdependent construal of the self, their correlates and conflicts in female college students and their mothers. Female college students and their mothers (99 pairs) responded to a questionnaire. As for the affected factors, the results suggested that the students were influenced by ‘past school life’, by contrast with the mothers influenced by ‘family’. On conflicts for the demand from the situation, in both the students and the mothers, it was found that subjects, giving priority to interdependent construal of the self, tended to feel conflicts when the situation demanded them to act independently, on the other hand, subjects who gave priority to independent construal of the self, tended to feel conflicts when the situation demanded them to act interdependently. The implication of these results were discussed in terms of generation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how teachers'beliefs relating to autonomy and control behavior are reflected in classroom teaching, and the effects on pupils'attitudes and achievements. The subjects comprised 20 teachers and 659 first grade pupils. Study 1 investigated the relationship between teachers'beliefs and the attitudes and achievements of pupils. The results showed that the pupils of autonomyoriented teachers had higher perceived competence and adapted themselves better to school than pupils with teachers who were more control-oriented. Study 2, through analysis of classroom teaching, investigated how teachers'beliefs about autonomy influenced their teaching behavior in the classroom. The study demonstrated that teachers'orientation toward autonomy was reflected in their teaching style and promoted pupils'learning motivation.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chum formation in preadolescence on women's ego development. 76 girls in the sixth grade as subjects have been tested using methods such as the Mannarino's chumchecklist, the author's intimacy motive scale, and the prospective adolescent crisis state scale. In addition, 93 senior high school girls, have completed the retrospective preadolescent chumchecklist and the adolescent crisis state scale (Nagao 1989). And also, 63 middle-aged women had been asked to answer questions based upon the middle-aged crisis scale (Nagao 1990), the retrospective adolescent crisis state scale, and the retrospective preadolescent chumchecklist. The main results were as follows: (1) The existence of chum in preadolescence had a stronger effect on the future ego development than the degree of the intimacy motive, and also (2) had more influence on the adolescent crisis state than on the middle-aged crisis state.(3) The former crisis state was connected with the latter crisis state and (4) the degree of the adolescent crisis state prospected by the preadolescent girls was stronger than that retrospected by the middle-aged women.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teachers'compulsive beliefs on teaching activities and their pupils'school morale. The questionnaires were administered to teachers and pupils in 105 classes of public elementary schools in Tokyo. The results showed that the teachers of high compulsive beliefs on teaching activities might have limited cognitive frames or appraisal standard for pupils. It was also found that pupils'school morale was relatively low in those teachers'classes.
The purpose of the present study was to examine an expansive self-report checklist called the perceived competence scale. This checklist emphasized the assessment of an adolescent's competence across different domains referred to the Harter (1981)'s method. The domains of competence studied were as follows: (a) cognitive competence,(b) extracurricular competence including physical competence,(c) social competence with friends of the same sex, and (d) social competence with friends of opposite sex. A fifth domain, i. e., general self-worth, was considered as independent of any particular skill domain. Seven hundred and ninety-four students in junior and senior high schools and college students answered the checklist. The psychometric properties of the scale were presented and its factorial validity was confirmed by a principal component analysis. The relationship between domains and some other considerations concerning education were discussed.
This thesis reviews various problems in the practice of today education concentrating on school stress. Although school stress is a remarkable problem for modern children, its studies are actually less in number than those of test anxiety. However, serious studies of the problem began in 1950. When these studies are observed, three subjects can be seen: 1) In the measurement of school stress, attention to three aspects-change of action, emotional change, and physiological change must be given. 2) The relation between school stress score and physiological reactions-heart rate, muscular tension, blood pressure and skin temperature has to be studied. 3) From our observation of school stress, the close study of stress in practical education should be done here after by the analysis of the problems of school bullying, or school refusal.