The purpose of this study was to examine their identity transformation processes when undergraduate students were exploring tasks of career. I interviewed with students for three occasions in the period. As a framework for the analyses, I applied Grotevant's process model of identity formation for the data of this study. As a result, 11 of 22 cases were consistent with the prediction from the model. However, the other 11 cases could not be explained by the model. I classified these cases into the following five patterns: 1) The subjects did not voluntarily explore their tasks at all; 2) They did not explore their identity, although they explored the task of career; 3) They did both identity exploration and task exploration. However, those two processes were not well integrated into their identity; 4) They explored the task based only on their present identity without revising it; 5) They changed their identity through task exploration other than career planning. These results were discussed based on the way that they processed the task.
This study examined the relationship between ego identity and anthropophobic tendency in adolescence from the point of view of individual-relational self conflict. Individual-relational self conflict means the conflict between individual self and relational self in Japanese socio-cultural environment based on the interdependent view of self in identity crisis. Identity crisis (stage V) with individual-relational self conflict would cause anthropophobic tendency, which would influence the problem of intimacy (stage VI) in identity crisis. And also autonomy (stage II) would influence both identity crisis and anthropophobic tendency. To examine this hypothesis, a covariance structure analysis was carried out. The results showed that all the causal coefficients were significant and the goodness of fit index of this model was high enough. These results suggested that identity crisis with individual-relational self conflict would cause anthropophobic tendency and this relation would be rooted in the sense of autonomy on stage II.
It is said that types of rule revision triggered by counterevidence depend on various factors. The current research examined whether activating a metaknowledge,“theories involving fewer principles and non-ad hoc explanation of certain phenomena are better,” promoted revising prior rules into more generalized rules after encountering counterevidence. In Exp. 1, it was confirmed that revising prior rules to more generalized knowledge was too difficult, even when a subject had specified knowledge about counterevidence and other instances. In Exp. 2, before conducting a rule generation task, above mentioned metaknowledge was instructed explicitly to experimental group subjects, while not to control group subjects. It was found that subjects of an experimental group, significantly more than a control group, revised to more generalized rules after encountering counterevidence. This finding indicated that using the metaknowledge affected the type of rule revision and promoted revision to more generalized rules. A general discussion found out how this metaknowledge affected processes of rule revision, and its application to education was offered.
This study had two aims: The first one was to examine what objects in real-terrain are used as landmarks. The second one was to examine the effects on self -orientation of a map contraligned with a real-terrain. Twenty-four junior college students participated as subjects in two experiments. The task given them was to orientate themselves on a map. As a result of the first aim, two main findings were apparent: Firstly, objects located behind subjects tended to be difficult to use as landmarks. Secondly, it was likely that the size and width of an object was a determining factor in its use as a landmark. The result of the second aim suggested that self-orientation was impaired by the map contraligned with a real-terrain.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between conflicts with the hearing world and deaf identity in college students with hearing impairments. First, 48 college students with hearing impairments were asked to describe conflicts with the hearing world in order to collect questionnaire items. Second, a questionnaire regarding conflicts with the hearing world and deaf identity was administered to 141 college students with hearing impairments. Third, a scale of conflicts with the hearing world and deaf identity scale was constructed. Conflicts with the hearing world were divided into 5 factors: “Nonacceptance of disability”,“Lack of confidence”,“Feeling of alienation”,“Separation from the hearing”,“Conflicts with parents”; and the deaf identity was divided into 3 factors: “Deaf person identity”,“Hearing person identity”,“Integrated identity”. Fourth, relations between conflicts with the hearing world and deaf identity were examined. Multiple regression analyses showed that an integrated identity was the most desirable one.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of consulting and guidance in school, and to examine the ways to develop its system. Subjects were consulting teachers at elementary and junior high schools. They were investigated by questionaires on the current status of consulting systems of their schools, and on their own opinions about consulting and guidance. The main results were as follws. First, the committees against “ijime” worked more actively in elementary schools while guidance committees actively functioned in junior high schools. The teachers who had longer teaching experience evaluated themselves highly as mediators at school. And, the teachers who had gone to training seminars for counseling wanted to participate positively in seminars, and to make great efforts to improve their consulting activities and counseling-rooms. It was found important that school as a whole maintained an atmosphere encouraging training on consulting with teachers sharing their informations and experiences
This paper was intended as an investigation of motivational effects on children's social behavior. In study 1,5th and 6th graders answered questions about emotions, behaviors, and reasoning for behaviors in social situations. In study 2,5th and 6th graders chose own emotion, goal, and behavior from items, based on analysis of study 1 data, in three hypothetical situations (entry, isolated, and accidental harm situation). In addition, subjects completed the behavior-expectation task of characters, in which subjects were required to expect behaviors of characters with two different motivational states in each situation. Results indicated that emotion and goal effected on the selection of social behavior. Finally, implications for clinical intervention and limitations of present study were also discussed.
This study examined how children used facial and situational cues to infer others' emotions. The subjects were 4-year-olds, 5-year-olds, first-graders, third-graders, fifth-graders, seventh-graders, and adults, and each group consisted of 10 males and 10 females. Subjects saw Picture stimuli providing facial cues (Task 1), Videotaped stimuli providing situational cues (Task 2), Videotaped stimuli providing both cues depicting the same emotion (Task 3), and Videotaped stimuli providing both cues depicting different emotions (Task 4). In conflicting condition (Task 4), 4-year-olds relied solely on facial cues to infer emotion, but this preference decreased with age. Having reached the third grade, girls were integrating both facial and situational cues, whereas boys who relied on situational cues in the third-and fifth grades, did not integrate both cues until the seventh grade. The way to use the cues in Task 4 was related somewhat to a development of abilities to understand others' emotions from facial cue (in Task 1) and from situational cue (in Task 2).
The ability of children in sixth and eighth grade to get the gist of an expository text was examined, using the text with explicit topic sentences. Subjects were divided into two groups, a foretold group and a control group. In the foretold group they were foretold to summary before reading the text. The result showed that foretelling had eighth graders get the information not only from the beginning part but also from the middle part and the ending part. However, it did not have any effect on getting the gist correctly. Eighth graders got the gist more correctly than sixth graders as well as a better grasping of the relation among information. This was regarded as the result of their available knowledge of the form of topic sentences and of the format of expository texts.
This study investigated the relationship between career decision-making selfefficacy and time perspective in undergraduates. 231 undergraduates were administrated CDMSE-U: J (Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale for Undergraduates in Japan), Cottle's Circles Test which measured temporal dominance, temporal development, and temporal relatedness, and a time attitude scale composed of 20 pairs of adjectives to measure image toward personal future. The result showed significant relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and time perspective, that is, future dominance, future development and temporal integration. Another result showed significant relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and positive image of future. It might also be added that significant relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and time perspective, especially perspective toward personal future was obtained.
The present study examined the adjustment to school by members of extracurricular athletic clubs in relation to their leaders. Subjects were 494 high school students currently active in clubs. The research was conducted by means of a questionnaire and the following significant results were obtained. Members, who could not assert themselves clearly (L-members), were not satisfied with either their leaders or club activities. In addition, members belonging to clubs whose leaders took an authoritative command (authoritarian club), were not satisfied either. Neither the L-members nor members of the authoritarian clubs were satisfied with their school in general either. Moreover, the L-members belonging to the authoritarian clubs could not pay as much attention to other personal interests as the L-members belonging to other kinds of clubs. The above results suggested that human interactions between members and leaders influenced members' adjustment to school. In order to improve human interactions, students should assert themselves clearly.
The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the developmental processes of spatial cognition, motor function and vocalization, and (2) to assess the relation among these processes during development. Three human infants from 10 to 24 weeks of age were longitudinally examined. As a target object was presented within and beyond reach, the infants' visual fixation, prereaching movement and vocalization were analyzed. At 17-18 weeks of age, just after the infants could control their head orientations, the duration of fixation and frequency of prereaching increased gradually only when the target was placed within their reach. Moreover, their hands started to open only to the target within reach. The vocalization tended to accompany prereaching to the target. These results suggested that the acquisition of head control had an important role in adjusting spatial orientation and activating vocalization in early infancy.
The purpose of this study was to construct the new Optimistic Attributional Style Questionnaire, and to examine its reliability and validity. For this purpose, two main inquiries were carried out. First, a preliminary questionnaire was given to 233 adults and 233 university students. Factor analysis yielded three factors, thus establishing three subscales. Following was an elaborated version of the questionnaire, i. e., the new Optimistic Attributional Style Questionnaire consisting of 23 items, and administered to 87 junior college students and 71 vocational school students. Its test-retest reliability coefficients with a three-month time interval ranged from. 63 to. 70, thus confirming its reliability. Correlational analyses with Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory proved validity in each subscale. The new Optimistic Attributional Style Questionnaire showed both its reliability and validity.