The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinds of strategies utilized to depict emotions in drawings and their developmental processes. Children aged 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11 (N=187), were asked to create a series of drawings depicting emotions (happy, sad, angry) in trees, and to report on their strategies. Drawings and reports were analyzed in relation to how children operated their knowledge when drawing. Two major findings were as follows.(1) Five kinds of strategies were identified from the reports: facial expressions (e. g., crying face for sad), gestures (e. g., drooping for sad), image scheme (e. g., a small tree for sad), emotion-evoking situations (e. g., a tree injured by a woodcutter for sad), and symbols (e. g., a tree in the rain for sad). These suggested that children utilized their knowledge toward emotions when drawing.(2) Drawings were scored in terms of the reported strategies and combination of the strategies. The results showed that as children grew they added more and more strategies to their repertoire, and depicted emotions while using more and more strategies.
The present study explored the structure of self-disclosure in old age, and examined the relation between self-esteem and the amount of self-disclosure. In this study, it was understood that self-disclosure had the function of stimulating “integrity” (Erikson et al., 1986) and seeking supports. Subjects were 30 males and 76 females over 60 years of age. It was found that the closer the relationship between the subject and his/her target became, the more the amount of self-disclosure were. The experiences of losing were found more intimate for elder than his/her past and present positive matters. The amount of self-disclosure in elder with middle selfesteem was higher than the lower one. The elder with high self-esteem had the tendency of disclosing his/her past experiences and positive matters to an intimate person, and of showing restrain in his/her losing experiences to his/her less familiar person.
The purpose of this study is to constract a scale to measure value-intending mental acts, characterized by six types of values (theoretical, economic, aesthetic, religious, social, political) originally proposed by Spranger (1921). A typical test based on Spranger's classification of values, i. e.,“Study of Values” (Allport et al., 1951), relates only the socio-cultural objects to which individuals feel the value, without treating the way in which individuals feel the value. Our scale is made to measure the latter subjective experience (“mental act”) itself. Basing upon personal interviews and preliminary survey, 54 items (6 mental acts X 9 items) are selected and administered to 493 college students (292 male and 201 female). With factor analysis, six subscales are extracted from those items to construct a Value-Intending Mental Act Scale. Relations of this scale, focused on subjective mental process of valuation, with preference between school subjects and vocational interest, are regarded as objective manifestations of the subjective processes making the object of a discussion.
This study investigated the formative factors of gender conception as a cognitive frame concerning gender and its influence on a selection of gender roles (career patterns) using a multiple regression analysis. High school students, composed of 747 females and 726 males, were asked their gender conception measured by how much they agreed to stereotypical behaviors and affairs according to gender. The factors contributing to reinforcement of the gender conception were as follows: (a) the contact with magazines proper to gender,(b) awareness of sex/gender differences in an early period of life,(c) encouragement of femininity (masculinity) by parents, and in addition,(d) a gender separated educational environment in males. Otherwise, from the pass analysis it was indicated that the attitudes of gender roles were made by the medium of the gender conception composed by those factors, and that the gender roles were selected on those attitudes. The Scale of Gender Conception was available as a measure for a gender schematic process except the self concepts.
Expository texts have been classified into procedural and declarative texts according to the types of knowledge conveyed. The number of developmental studies on the comprehending processes of procedural texts is more limited than the declarative one. The present study attempts to examine children's comprehending processes of a procedural text. 306 subjects, third to sixth graders, were required to read a text on how to write a flowchart written in an either procedural or declarative type, and were then asked to perform two tasks a comprehension test and a drawing flowchart. The results of the text comprehension test showed interaction between grades and text types. Namely, the fifth and sixth graders performed better in reading the declarative text than the procedural one, whereas the third and fourth graders scored no differences between the two texts. With the drawing flowchart, all graders showed higher scores in reading procedural texts. Based on Kintsch's situation model, constructing text base in reading declarative text had a better advantage than the procedural one. However, the extent of a situation model was not elaborated.
Two experiments examined children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotion. In Experiment 1, 4-and 6-year-olds children listened to stories in which it would be appropriate for a main story protagonist (A) to feel either a positive or a negative emotion but hiding that emotion toward the other protagonist (B)(a familiar friend or a strange child). Subjects were asked to answer 3 questions: how the protagonist (A) would look, how the protagonist (A) would really feel, how the protagonist (A) would think the other protagonist (B)'s feeling, and to justify their claims. In Experiment 2, we compared the ability to understand 2nd-order mental states with their ability to distinct between a real and apparent emotion. The results indicated that even 4-year-olds showed a grasp of the understanding of second-order mental states, while 6-year-olds demonstrated their grasp of the difference between real and apparent emotion, especially when the protagonist (A) faced a strange child. These findings were discussed in relation to recent research concerning children's theories of mind.
This study clarified factors of premise categories for plausibility judgment of Category Based Induction. A distance factor of premise categories was investigated in Experiment 1 by contrasting a pair of general arguments. The result showed that basically the arguments of which premise categories' distance was larger were judged more plausible. However, it was also indicated that a cluster structure and dimension of premise categories configuration might have affected the plausibility judgment. The dimension factor for plausibility judgment was examined in Experiment 2. The result showed that a majority of subjects had a more plausible judgment on the argument of which premise categories were located in parallel to their own weighted dimension. Experiment 3 examined whether the size dimension, possibly more fundamental than predation, was more important even for predation weighted subjects. The result showed that the number of subjects, who judged more plausible the argument of which premise categories were along size dimension, was not statistically trivial.
The purpose of this study was to make clear the effects of self-monitoring strategy in foreign students of Japanese on pronunciation learning and to examine the relations between the motivations for this learning and the strategy of this kind. One hundred twelve foreign students of Japanese, mainly Asians, were asked to respond to 24 items of motivations and 42 items of strategy for their pronunciation learning. Ten types of strategy and six types of motivation were found through the factor analysis of the items. As a result of path analysis, the self-monitoring strategy had a positive effect on their pronunciation score and the students who had high motivations and constructive perspectives to their future learnings tended to use self-monitoring strategy. Further analysis revealed that three categories of self-monitoring strategy were found, and among them, self-monitoring based on adequate criteria by listening to the pronunciations of model was highly related to the pronunciation score
The purposes of this study were to make a scale to measure motivation of university students in their study of English and to examine the reliability and the validity of this scale. Twenty-two items were used in this study, which were theoretically classified into six orientations; fulfilment, training, practice, relation, self-esteem and reward (Ichikawa, 1995a). The results of factor-analysis showed that those items were composed of two factors; fulfilment-training and self-esteem-reward orientations. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of this scale were sufficiently high, and the test-retest reliability coefficients were appropriate compared with those of other scales of the same kind. The scores on this scale were moderately correlated with the amount of time spent in studying English, the scores on the Concepts of Learning Scale (Horino et al., 1990), the scores on the Achievement Motivation Scale (Horino & Mori, 1991), and the scores on the Self-consciousness Scale (Sugawara, 1984).
In our study, the Family Assessment Inventory was administered to 267 junior high school pupils and their fathers and mothers. Also, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) was administered to the pupils. The data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis to examine the two hypotheses about the relationship between each family member's perception of family function and the pupils' depressive mood. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) The parents' perception of family function with respect to familial communication, satisfaction and cohesion affected the children's perception of family functioning with the same three variables having inverse correlation with the CDI score. 2) The parents' perception of the family flexibility and family rules had an influence on the children's perception of the same two variables having, at the same time, a curvilinear relationship with the CDI score. The path-model based on the first hypothesis was supported by the satisfactory goodness of fit with the covariance matrix. The present study clarified the relationship between the perception of family function and the pupils' depressive mood.
In Novak's “concept mapping”, fully constructed “concept map” is shown to subjects before and/or after mapping work. As it takes too much time to get satisfactory results, in this study map completion tasks were introduced. Subjects were to insert some of the suitable concepts or lines into the blanks to make up the map wholly. In preliminary experiments the difficulty of getting satisfactory results were tested. In Exp. I, map completion task with some blanks of concepts are found to be the most effctive. In Exp. II, time spent on this task were manipulated. Subjects had negative effects when only 5 minutes were allowed. When 25 minutes were spent on this task in a 50 minute-experiment, subjects had the best positive effects.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an object's surrounding situation on qualifying word meaning in young children. The subjects were 50 children aged four to five years. When the experimenter labeled a novel word to target examples (i. e.“an elephant” or “a lion and a tiger”) which were in a cage, subjects were likely to qualify the word meaning only when being similarly restricted by its surrounding situation (a cage). On the other hand, when the experimenter labeled a novel word to target examples not in a cage, subjects were likely to qualify the word meaning with a conceptual level name (i. e.“elephant” or “animal”). The findings suggested that an object's surrounding situation had an effect on qualifying word meaning in young children.