The purpose of this study was to investigate, with elementary school 5th and 6th graders, structures of children's arithmetic anxiety and methods of teacher's supports. The results of the investigation indicated that: (1) As children's arithmetic anxiety, 4 factors (F1: in class; F2: failure to solution of problems; F3: concerning the teacher; F4: connected to surroundings) were extracted.(2) There was every possibility with matter related to children's arithmetic anxiety that the teacher practiced supports children wanted but not the amount of supports.(3) A gap of supports between the children's expectation from the teacher and teacher's influenced on arithmetic anxiety in girls. R In arithmetic anxieties that were related immediately to problem solution, children wanted the teacher's instrumental support, and the trend was stronger in children with higher arithmetic anxiety.(5) On the contrary, in arithmetic anxieties with no immediate relation with problem solution, children wanted the teacher's emotional support, and the trend was seen higher in girls.
The present study was intended to investigate the effect of learning decisionmaking strategies in vocational decision making of undergraduate students. Ninetytwo undergraduate students was randomly assigned to 3 groups: the Subjective Expected Utility Strategy (SEU), the Elimination by Aspects Strategy (EBA), and the control group. The effect of decision-making strategy was examined in high and low groups of vocational readiness (clarity of aspiration) regarding the cognition of vocational decision-making and vocational decision-making self efficacy. As a result, the effect of decision making strategy was found in low but not in high groups. Also the examination of the impression of strategy used by the experiment revealed that EBA was a more favored strategy for undergraduate students.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of teaching practices in kindergartens and day care nurseries on perceived pre-school teacher-efficacy (PTE) by longitudinal method. In a preliminary study, a PTE scale was administered to 161 junior college students in an early childhood education course in order to examine changes between pre- and post-teaching practices. The results revealed that the subjects were inclined to increase their PTE scores after their teaching practices. In a primary study, a revised PTE scale was administered to 142 junior college students. The main results were as follows: 1) The PTE scale proved to have satisfactory internal consistency. 2) High validity was shown in a correlation of the PTE score with other measures, such as generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, self-evaluation concerning teaching practice and performance scores evaluated by the guidance teacher. 3) The PTE scores increased significantly after the teaching practice. These results showed that the teaching practice experience enhanced the PTE. 4) The perceived “sense of harmony with the kindergarten” concerning teaching practice had an effective relation to the PTE.
The purposes of this study were three-fold: first, to examine developmental trend of letter copying by preschool children. An attempt was made to evaluate the shape of letters in terms of segmentation/ construction. Second, this study aimed to examine the effects that might be caused by a difference of sex. The third purpose of this study was to see the relationship between the ability to form letters and visualmotor skills. The subjects were ninety 3-to-6 year old preschool children. Each subject was asked to copy six “Kana” letters and, at the same time, was individually given a Draw-A-Man Test. The main results were as follows: a) The developmental changes observed among the present subjects proceeded in the following order: (1) unintelligible,(2) miscellaneous,(3) proper segmentation,(4) proper segmentation as well as construction. b) No difference was seen due to children's sex, once they were able to respond to the letter writing tasks. c) A significant positive correlation was recognized between the developmental changes in letter forming and the visual-motor abilities.
Three hundred and thirty-eight late-adolescents (undergraduate students) were asked to estimate the distributions of men's and women's opinions about the sex roles -pursuing career and/ or doing domestic works. They were also asked to indicate the degree of their satisfaction with being their own sex as well as their future preferences about pursuing career and doing domestic works (how they would want themselves and their partners to do). First, intergroup differences were found in the estimated opinion distributions; the respondents estimated that the relatively traditional opinions must be supported more by men than by women, while the differences in their estimates showed the reverse direction regarding the relatively liberal opinions. Second, the false-consensus effect was likely to be identified in the female respondents whose future preferences were relatively liberal but in the male respondents whose future preferences were relatively traditional. Third, the female respondents, who had relatively liberal preferences and estimated that higher percentage of men must support the same opinions as their own, tended to show more satisfaction with being women.
The purpose of this study was to investigate two aspects of ego identity based on independent and interdependent construal of the self in adult women and try to grasp them developmentally from the viewpoint of lifestyle (housewife, office worker, agriculture). Ego identity scale and independent/ interdependent construal of the self scale were administered to 318 women (age range, 30-59). The main results were summarized as follows: (1) Scores of independent / interdependent construal of the self scale had a tendency to keep increasing from 40 to 50.(2) Agriculture group tended to have intense interdependent construal of the self in neighborhood compared with other groups. Office workers tended to have less interdependent construal of the self in the house compared with other groups.(3) What identity was based on tended to change in 30, 40, 50 as followes. agricultures: independent→independent→independent/ interdependent.(construal of the self). office worker: independent→ independent→ independent (construal of the self). housewives: interdependent→ independent→independent/ interdependent (construal of the self).