This study examined the relations among social responsibility goal, learning behavior, and academic achievement in classrooms. Participants were 107 fifth and sixth graders. First, a questionnaire of social responsibility goal was administered, and then two weeks later, questionnaires of learning behavior, academic help-seeking, and academic competence were also administered. Among various types of learning behavior, this study focused on socially desirable and normative learning behavior in classrooms. As an index of academic performance, teacher ratings were used. Statistical analyses indicated that social responsibility goal was positively correlated with learning behavior, academic competence, and academic performance. On the other hand, academic help-seeking had no significant correlations with other measures. Regression analysis revealed that social responsibility goal's influence on academic performance was mediated by learning behavior. The role of social responsibility goal in promoting children's acquisition of academic norm in a classroom was discussed.
This study tested predictions about the developmental tendency of children's perception of power by gender. Eighty-seven children (6, 8, 10years) were shown cards with pictures of father and mother, man and woman. They were then asked which one of the two persons on the card spoke words of situatons given to them. Children's perceptions of power were evaluated by their answer. Results showed that children changed their perceptions from mother was more powerful than father to perceptions that mother and father were equally powerful. Their perceptions of power among parents and that of men and women had a relatively high correlation at age 10. They responded with father and mother, men and women similarly. Sex difference was observed for men and women. At age 6, boys perceived women as more powerful than men, but girls did not. Since those boys perceived mother to be more powerful than father, their perceptions seemed to infleunce their perception that women were more powerful than men. It was suggested that girls understood the stereotypical power relationship between father and mother, men and women, earlier than boys at age 6.
This article proposed the existence of a factor which might facilitate inferential meaning in sign language. This factor would be derived from formational parameter components of signs associated with emotion. We assume that it was introduced into sign language system, and fixed as a semantic convention. In order to demonstrate such hypothesis, emotional and abstract expressions from lexical items of Japanese Sign Language were extracted, excluding iconic or socio-conventional expressions derived from conventional gestures. Thirty-six noniconic lexical items of JSL were presented, with neutral facial expressions, to 98 testee adult subjects. Using 20 semantic differential rating scales, subjects were to report impressions on the meaning of each sign item. Kinesic components of the signs were divided into 8 categories and 25 subcategories. A multivariate analysis (HAYASHI 1) was applied to these data. The results showed that some kinesic components greatly contributed to particular semantic ratings. An additional experiment with artificial body movements was executed, and similar results were obtained. These findings support the authors' predictions.
In the field of studying associative process, two major testing methods could be utilized: Word Association Test (WAT) and the Rorschach Test. It had been held that associative processes of both tests had hardly anything in common, because of the differences between both test stimuli. The aim of this study was to detect common factors of associative process of both tests, focusing on “Conceptual Distance” between stimulus and response. WAT and the Rorschach Test were administered to 44 subjects of normal adults. Testing situation of WAT was modified, adopting “Free-Condition,” in which time pressure had been removed. A new analysing method,“Associative Determinant Analysis” was used to examine WAT responses. WAT responses were finally classified Subject-bound response and Stimulus-bound response. Test results showed that Subject-bound response was closely related with the following Rorschach scores: 1) more articulated form perception; 2) more FC responses; 3) introversive experience type, and 4) higher creativity. Stimulus-bound type of response was found to be nearly contrary. Thus, Subject-bound response was characterized by a greater conceptual distance on the one hand, and Stimulus-bound response by less conceptual distance on the other.
The present study aimed at elucidating the mechanism of feedback information for anxiety reduction when a subject with anxiety disorders was given a task requiring the reduction of SCL-i. e. an anxiety reduction task-while exposed to SCL feedback information. The study showed that feedback information worked as an anxiety arousing stimulus for a subject complaining of anxiety symptoms; but when exposed to anxiety reducing stratagies, the arousal of the subject's anxiety weakened. It was also found that feedback informations worked in two ways: (1) as an anxiety arousing stimulus by the cognition that this particular information was the information concerning anxiety, and (2) either as an anxiety arousal stimulus or an anxiety reducing stimulus depending on the content of information implied in the feedback.
The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial structure of adolescents' attitudes and behaviors towards their parents, and to suggest a framework for understanding a psychological weaning process. First, 379 male and 422 female undergraduate students were asked to answer questionnaires composed of 105 questions. These questions concerned parent-children relationships. Answers for all questions were analyzed with the factor analysis. Second, primary factor correlations were analyzed through secondary factor analysis. The results showed that the structure of adolescents' attitudes and behaviors towards their parents were composed of five primary factors (1. Favorable influence by their parents; 2. Confrontation with their parents; 3. Obedience to their parents; 4. Affectionate bond with their parents; and 5. Recognition of their parents as an independent single person). Were also found two secondary factors: 1. Affiliation orientation factor; and 2. Objective and independent orientation factors. Third, the author proposed a framework for understanding a psychological weaning process with these secondary factors.