The present study examines the relationship between RNEE (regulation of negative emotional expression) and satisfaction of friendship, and between RNEE and mental health. A questionnaire was developed to examine RNEE. The questionnaire on RNEE, satisfaction of friendship, self-esteem and depression were administered to 311 undergraduate students. Factor analysis of the RNEE scores yielded five factors relating to situations and motives of the regulation: (F1)-prosocial motives in a physically damaging situation; (F2)-prosocial motives in a verbally damaging situation; (F3)-prosocial motives occurring in a situation when a friend met with misfortune; (F4)-prosocial motives relating to a situation involving a friend's happiness and satisfaction; and (F5)-self-protective motives in a situation related to the avoidance of loss of face. It was found that (a) a high score of F2 or F5 in the RNEE was closely related to a low satisfaction of friendship,(b) a high score of Fl, F2, F4 or F5 in the RNEE was related to a low self-esteem, and (c) a high score of F5 in the RNEE was related to a high depression.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of appraisal of academic stressors and coping strategies on stress responses and academic motivation in junior high school students. In the first survey, subjects were made of 233 junior high school students. It was shown that appraisal of academic stressors, dependent emotion-focused coping and avoidance coping all were positively related to stress responses. On the other hand, positive emotion-focuced coping was seen negatively related to stress responses. In a second survey subjects were made of 495 junior high school students. It was shown that appraisal of academic stressors were negatively related to feeling of self-growth and academic motivation; but probrem-solving coping was positively related to a feeling of self-growth and academic motivation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction among learning material mode, test mode, and learner cognitive mode. Cognitive mode was examined by “Thinking-Artistic cognitive mode”. The manipulated experimental factors were as follows: (1) learning material mode. sentence and picture; (2) test mode: sentence and picture; (3) thinking cognitive mode: high and low; and (4) artistic cognitive mode: high and low. Four-way ANOVA were conducted on test scores. The results showed a significant interaction between learning material mode and thinking cognitive mode that revealed the superior performance of high thinking cognitive mode group over low thinking cognitive mode group in sentence material; and it also showed a significant interaction between learning material mode and test mode which revealed correspondence effects between learning material mode and test mode on a test performance.
In Japan, along with the increase in the number of undergraduates, there has been an increase in the number of students chatting during class, and an increase in the number of students who don't apply themselves. This study comes to the conclusion that there are two main factors to be considered for the improvement of university education: (1) the way to increase students' motivation, and (2) the support of the teaching staff. For factor (1), when formulating curricula, it is necessary for teachers to be more intune with students' interests and more open when it comes to grading. Furthermore, a two-way communication as well as implementing various teaching strategies will help to increase students' motivation. For factor (2), the effective use of teacher evaluations by students and the training in teaching and counseling of prospective teachers were to be considered important in supporting teaching staff.