This study ontogenetically examined the relation between the ability of speech and gesture production. Four-year-old preschoolers, 5-year-old preschoolers, 1-3rd graders, 4th-6th graders, and university students (N=56) were instructed to explain a swing and a slide verbally. Their explanation was video-recorded and analyzed. The results showed that, although the total duration of speech production increased linearly as a function of age, the frequency of gestures changed tracing a U-shaped pattern. Gesture production decreased in school children but not in university students. Each group produced gestures different from those of other participants with regard to the pattern. Beats were produced only by university students while the viewpoint of gestures and speech-gesture relations differed between groups. Only university students produced gestures regarded to be profoundly related to language competence. Gestures produced during the early period of human development were considered complementary to language competence, while those produced by adults were seen as redundant to their speech.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that self-evaluation, by video analysis, had on the modification of teachers' helping skills for 3 to 6-year-old children in kindergarten. Six teachers were required to record their daily classes on video. While watching the recordings, they evaluated themselves on 40 items of helping skills 5 times, in consecutive intervals within a 2-week period. One group started in May, while the other group started in September. The categories of the skill targets were Direct Skills, i. e., holding and playing with children, a direct approach using verbal and nonverbal language, Supporting Skills, i. e., looking over children's activities or staying close to them, an indirect approach by using nonverbal language, and Other Skills, i. e., suggesting play and emotional comforting. Both sets of teachers' improvement varied according to the age group of their class. The intervention resulted in an increase in the variety and frequency of Direct and Supporting Skills, while other skills did not show any improvement. This study found self-evaluation using video analysis to be effective for improving helping skills.