The purpose of the present study was to investigate the negotiation process in adolescents through hypothetical interpersonal conflict situations. A structured interview based on Selman's theory measured the respondents' interpersonal negotiation strategies in 3 different interpersonal contexts: situations with the adolescent's father, with the mother, and with a friend. Participants, 55 junior high school students and 56 university students, were classified into 4 or 5 patterns of negotiation process in each context in terms of the level of their scores on the 2 strategies-“best strategy” and “strategy after an obstacle”. The main results were as follows: 1)A significant difference was found for age only in the situations with friends. More of the university students than the junior high school students tried to maintain relationships with friends. 2)Participants who tried to maintain reciprocity considered the long-term relationship with their significant others, as compared with participants who always used unilateral strategies. 3)Analysis of individual patterns showed that adolescents' beliefs about the other person's response influenced each pattern.
The purposes of the present study were to explore experiential factors affecting the feeling of trust, and to search for a way to encourage the development of trust. Using either the free description or SCT method for 48 helping professionals (teachers and school counselors) and 102 high school students, a 64-item test was prepared to measure experiences affecting trust. The items and trust scale were administered to 456 high school students. The result of the factor analysis showed that experiences affecting trust had 4 dimensions:“experience of acceptance”,“experience of approval”,“experience of deep attachment with parents” and “painful experience from personal relationships (negative effect)”. Furthermore, experiences affecting trust for 160 high school boys and 71 male high-school aged delinquents were investigated. Multiple regression analysis showed that delinquents' trust was mainly affected by experiences of approval and acceptance by adults, and that of regular high school boys by peer approval and experiences of personal-accomplishment. It was suggested that the path to self-confidence in adolescence follows a gradual shift in the locus of acceptance from adults to peers, and finally to self-acceptance.
In Study 1, 2 axes-external unexpected (EU)-internal intrusion (II), and private life (PL)university life (UL)-were extracted from negative stress events, and 5 types of coping behavior were compared across 4 isolated negative stress groups. Participants were 102 undergraduate students. In Study 2, personality types, stress recognition, and responses were compared among the 4 groups. Participants were 113 undergraduates. The results were as follows: The Internal Intrusion-Private Life group had significantly higher “conversion of points of view” coping behavior than the other groups. This result was explained by the additional finding that the cognition and responses of the Internal Intrusion-Private Life group were both negative. Also, the escape coping behavior was significantly higher than the other coping behaviors for the External Unexpected-University Life group this was explained by the low recognition of threatening and also by the low recognition of capability followed burden. The results were discussed in terms of college students' styles of coping with negative stress events.
The purposes of the present study included designing a scale to ask adolescents in the second individuation process (Blos, 1985) the images of four target persons (mother, father, and the closest same-sex and other-sex friends), and using the resulting scale to investigate the relations between adolescents and their parents, and between adolescents and their friends. The questionnaire was completed by 821 junior and senior high school students in the early or middle stages of adolescence. From an iterated principal factor analysis, 4 factors were extracted about images of their parents: Idealization, Non-Dependence, Understanding, and Conflict, and 4 factors about images of their closest same-sex and other-sex friends: Reliability, Intimacy, Individuality, and Rivalry. The image of the adolescents' parents and of their same-sex and other-sex friends changed as the youth matured, relations between a female adolescent and her mother or closest friend were much closer than those between a male youth and his mother or closest friend. Non-Dependence on parents, and Understanding of the Mother, both accelerate Reliability and Intimacy with the same-sex friend.